trade-oriented sales promotions
trade-oriented sales promotions (or simply trade promotions) are directed to
wholesalers, retailers, and distributors.
1. allowances and discounts
a. merchandise allowances reimburse a retailer for brand.
b. case allowances are discounts on each case ordered during a specific
c. finance allowances involve paying retailers for financing costs or
financial losses associated with consumer sales promotions.
1. cooperative advertising. cooperative advertising involves programs by
which a manufacturer pays a percentage of the retailer's local advertising
expense for advertising the manufacturer's products.
public relations efforts may utilize a variety of tools and may be directed at many distinct
audiences. the most frequently used public relations tool is publicity. sometimes public
relations is used to minimize the impact of a crisis, such as in the case of firestone tires.
a. public relations tools
several tools are used:
* the news release is an announcement regarding changes in the company or