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BIOL 1010
Alister Simpson

Bio 1000 prof. Mindy Facebook groups - the cell: an image library - cell culture techniques A tour of the cell part 2 Mitochondria - produces ATP, energy synthesis - humans make up to 100 lb of ATP per day - inner and outer membrane, matrix, intermembrane space and ribosome - ATP produced in the inner membrane - Cristae, folds in the inner membrane give more surface area to produce more ATP - Ribosomes found in mitochondria are completely different than ribosomes found else where (look more like bacterial ribosomes) - Have only unique DNA o All circular o All maternal Endosymbiont Theory - Explains why mitochondria has different DNA and ribosomes - Long time ago eukaryotes “ate” some prokaryotes and both became beneficial for the other - The prokaryotes created ATP for the eukaryote to use Cytoskeleton - holds the cell together - not made off bone, made of protein that constantly assemble and fall apart again - microfilament (7nanometers across) o made from actin, and only actin o actin is globular o many different protein come together and twine together to form a rope like structure o often works with myocin protein, Actin works with the myocin o responsible for changing the cell shape to reach out towards different things o shared job with mircotubuals o jobs of the microfiliment  move organelles  cell division, help split the cell in half, act like a belt tightening  muscle contractions with the help of actin - microtubules (25 nanometers across) o hollow tubes o alpha and beta tubulin o are polar structure’s, minus and plus ends (not the change just the label) o very dynamic, always growing and shrinking o act as rail ways for motor proteins  Kinesin protein, many different types moves towards the plus end  Dynein, many different types, moves towards the minus ends  Sometimes motor proteins will pick up whole entire organelles and move them around the cell - Intermediate filament (10 nanometers across) o Stabilize cell structure o Very strong resist tension o Made of many different types of proteins o No motility or movement o Structure - help with mechanical support - necessary for movement and mobility Centrosomes - makes the microtubules - 3 microtubules join to make a triplet - 3 x 3 join together to make a 9 clump - 9 clumps forms circle Cilia and flagella - structurally similar to microtubules - used in locomotion - flagella are longer than cilia and found by themselves - cilia are shorter are found in clumps - internal structure of the cilia and flagella o attach to cells with a 9+0 pattern in form call basal body o 9 of the microtubules triplets form star shape o everywhere else 9+2 pattern o 9 of the microtubules triplets join around the out side with 2 on the inside - motor molecule dynein allows cilia and flagella to move o on slide dyein is in red - when the dynein tries to walk along the microtubule it forces a bend in the whole structure Extracellular matrix - mainly composed of glycoproteins - proteoglycans - fibronetic - integrin - collagen Macromolecules Chapter 5 - 4 different classes: carbohydrate, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids - all macro. made of monomers o short “lego” blocks - all monomers come together in similar ways o one mono had hydroxide end, other has hydrogen end o they come together to form water and the exsposed end join o done by enzymes - when they break apart is called hydrolysis reaction o reverse happens, water comes in and H joins one end and OH joins other end to break apart proteins o This is what lysosomes do (they are call hydrolytic enzymes Carbohydrates - all end in ose (eg. lactose, gluscose….) - made of C, H, and O - all in same ratio o 1:2:1 C:H:O - monosaccharide’s are the monomers for carbohydrates - two monosaccharides linked = Disaccharide o glucose + glucose = maltose o glucose + fructose = sucrose o galactose + glucose = lactose - polysaccharides = 100’s and 1000’s of monosaccharide’s linked together o used to store carbohydrates o eg. Glycogen, starch, cellulose - plants are composed of lots of cellulose o we cant eat plants because the glucose that forms cellulose is oriented in a slightly different ways than the glucose that we can eat o the 2 different kinds are alpha and beta glucose o we can digest the alpha glucose (starch) but not beta (cellulose, fibre) - cows and such can digest cellulose because they have bacteria in the stomachs that can digest it Lipids - 3 different types - fats o are hydrophobic o made of a chain of hydrocarbons o when they have a ______________ attached to end end o 3 glycerol attach to three fatty acids chains and to each other to form a triglycerol  this is how are bodies store fat o saturated fats do not have any double bonds in them (solid at room temp. decreased fluidity) o unsaturated fats will have double bonds in the (liquid at room temp. increased fluidity)  the double bond bends the chain and cant be as closely packed together  cis or trans formation  cis has CH2 on the same side  trans have CH2 on opposite sides o hydrogenated vegetable oil has the bend in the chain straightened out, an H has been added - phospholipids o 2 fatty acids + glycerol + phosphate and another smaller molecule on the top o amphipathic  on end is hydrophobic other is hydrophilic o form membranes - steroids o no fatty tail or glycerol o formed in rings Proteins - do most of the jobs in the cell o a lot of variation - monomer that makes up protein is called is an amino acid - MEMORIZE AMINO ACID STRUCTURE - 20 different animo acids o identified by there different side chain - each animo acid cane be identified by a three letter code or a one letter code - organized into groups o Hydrophobic group(similar side chains o hydrophilic group - formed through condensation reaction o resulting bond is called a peptide bond o amino end, carboxyle end - there are 4 different levels of protein o primary structure = order of the amino acids o secondary structure = hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone  alpha helix held together by hydrogen bonds  beta pleated sheets lined up in to folded shapes o tertiary structure = 3D shape due to interactions between side chains  held together by van de waals force o quaternary structure = interactions between multiple proteins  forms the final product from multiple different Membranes - Composition Fluid mosaic modle o Lipids, protein, carbohydrates - Phospholipid make up the membranes o Glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate and “group” o Are amphipathic o Both a hydrophobic and phylic region o 2 rows together is called a phospholipid bilayer o membrane fluidity  unsaturated fats increase fluidity  saturated fats decrease fluidity  cholesterol also affects membrane fluidity o will move side to side rapidly but not flip from inner to out leaflet  sometime flippase enzyme will cause a flip of the lipids - proteins are either integral or o integral penetrate through the hydrophobic region of the bilayer  the hydrophobic regions of the integral protein were located on the inside  filled with alpha helix proteins  asymmetrical o peripheral proteins not embedded in bilayer, on the surface of the membrane o glycoprotein and glycolipids are attached respectively to lipids and proteins - selective permeability o 2 main types: passive and active  passive doesn’t require and energy  move from high concentrations to low concentration  simple diffusion, molecule pass right through the membrane o only molecule that are solu
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