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ERTH 1030 Notes: Chapter 8

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
ERTH 1030
Professor
Dr.Anne- Marie Ryan
Semester
Winter

Description
Geography  1030  Notes       Chapter  8:  Geologic  Change  on  Earth   Endogenic-­‐  processes  originating  from  inside  the  earth       -­‐volcanoes       -­‐earthquakes       -­‐related  to  mountain  building  and  the  tectonic  processes     Exogenic-­‐  processes  originating  on  earths  surface       -­‐weathering:  by  rain,  temperature  changes  (freeze-­‐thaw),  interaction  with  oxygen  +  the  air       -­‐erosion:  removing  and  transporting  matter  through  running  water,  waves,  glacial  ice,  wind,   gravity,  and                                                                                            hhhhhhhhhhhhhorganisms       -­‐combined  these  move  material  and  change  the  landscape     Land  forms-­‐specific  shapes  of  the  earth  surface   ▯ Initial  landforms:  created  by  endogenic  forces   ▯ Sequential  landforms:  shaped  by  weathering,  erosion,  and  mass  wasting   o Mass  wasting:  gravity  driven  ex.  Landslides,  glaciers     Earths  Interior   Core:     ▯ center  of  the  earth  (most  dense)   ▯ Consists  of  iron  and  some  nickel   ▯ Outer  liquid   ▯ Inner  solid   ▯ ^  know  from  earthquake  waves  (P  +  S)     Mantle:     ▯ rock  layer  beneath  the  coast  and  surrounding  the  core  (2  most  dense)   ▯ ultramafic  igneous  rock   ▯ has  the  asthenosphere,    softer  most  fluid  layer  of  mantle-­‐near  top  (+/-­‐  3%  liquid)     Crust:   ▯ outermost  layer  (solid)  of  earth   ▯ at  base,  the  Moho  discontinuity  signifies  the  base  of  the  crust,  and  the  differe nce  in  rock  densities   ▯ 2  types  of  crust▯  oceanic:  mafic  (more  dense)                                  ▯  continental:  felsic  (less  dense),  lower  zone  mafic,  upper  felsic   ▯ the  continental  crust  is  thicker  and  less  dense  that  the  oceanic  crust     in  terms  of  Structural  Nature     lithosphere-­‐outershell  of  rigid,  brittle  rock,  including  the  crust  and  also  the  cooler,  upper  part  of  the  mantle   -­‐plates  and  plate  tectonics   -­‐overlies  the  asthenosphere   isostasy:  equilibrium,  balance       the  relationship  between  compressed  materials  and  stuff  (glaciers  will  squish  crust)   Lithospheric  plates     A  segment  of  lithosphere  moving  as  a  unit       “sliding”  on  top  of  the  asthenosphere     in  contact  with  adjacent  lithospheric  plates  long  plate  boundaries       plate  boundaries=lots  of  activity       Earth  Materials  and  the  Cycle  of  Rock  Change  (long  term)   Most  a
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