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NESC 2470 (13)

Lecture 3, Nov 16th, 2011.docx

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NESC 2470

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Lecture 3, Nov 16th, 2011 November-22-11 7:38 AM Brodmann's area 6  2 components o Supplementary motor area  Sends axons through internal capsule, down spinal cord, and makes connections with distal muscles (hands, feet)  Innervate distal motor units directly o Premotor area  Connects primarily with reticulospinal neurons that innervate proximal motor units  Is the "middle" between planning and implementation  Converts "what" happened signals into "how" it happened signals Brodmann's areas 5 and 7  Very involved in directed intention  Must be involved in directed movement Prefrontal cortex  Involved in planning of movement M1 (area 4)  Lies directly in front of central sulcus in parietal lobe  Motor action implemented here Other areas  Planning of motor movement  Not responsible for implementation Four ways area 6 studied on its function  Per Roland o PET scan, looking at blood flow in brain  Had them tap finger while in scanner  M1, area 6, prefrontal cortex, and areas 5 and 7 light up  Then had them mentally tap finger  Prefrontal, areas 5, 6, 7, not area 4, or M1 light up Supplementary motor area  Discharges axons over 1 second before movement o Side of movement doesn't affect delay  Control of movement in SMA not contralateral  Both sides heavily connected through corpus callosum  Damage to SMA interferes with complex motor actions o Ex. Doing buttons up on a shirt Apraxia  Results from SMA damage  You can still perform simple motor tasks, but not complex ones Experiment with monkeys  Ready-set-go experiment o PMA activity high before pushing button Ventral lateral nucleus  Major input source to area 6  Input into this arises from the basal ganglia Basal Ganglia  Receives signal from prefrontal, motor, and sensory cortex  Sends signal to ventral lateral nucleus o Activates area 6 cells o Sends signal to area 4 o Function of this loop to select and initiate willed movements  Striatum o Target of cortical input to the basal ganglia o Caudate nucleus o Putamen  These two are an extension of each other  Globus pallidus o Source of output to thalamus  Substantia nigra o Uses only dopamine as neurotransmitter  Subthalamic nucleus Parkinson's disease  Cells of substansia nigra begin to die  First symptom is difficulty initiating movement  Motor movement fine  But signalling system for movement inadequate **DIAGRAM IN NOTEBOOK** L-dopa  Dopamine precursor  Crosses blood brain barrier  Drug for Parkinson's treatment  Doesn't prevent substantia nigra cell death o Once all cells
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