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Lecture

W.V Quine

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 4120
Professor
Duncan Macintosh
Semester
Winter

Description
Monday, March 21, 2011 W.V Quine – Two Dogmas of Empiricism, On What There Is [Trained as a LP] Grice, Strawson – In Defense of a Dogma Responding to the LP tradition – every meaningful sentence is a truth of def., or a sentence that can be true of false through observation of the world Theoretical sentences (ex. electrons) can be defined through other things you can observe. Logical truth of empirical truth – direct empirical truth or definable in terms of empirical truths Analytic – logical truths. True necessarily, could not be false. Could be such because of definitions, rules of language, subject terms of sentences, etc. Method is a priori (truth or false in advance of) Synthetic – grounded in fact. True contingently, could be false in diff. circumstances. All you had to know if the meaning of the terms in them. Thought to be such because given their meanings they said they could be true in some situations and false in others. A posteori Each statement is either analytic or synthetic (tell you how to expect the world to look if its true or false) No such thing to truth other than a logical necessity. Quine – what does it mean to be an analytic truth? It’s purely picturesque. What is a possible world? Predicate word concept is contained in the subject. Ex. Bachelor contains unmarried and male – What is it for one concept to contain another? Analytic truths which involve definitions – ex. concept ‘bachelor’ is the same as ‘unmarried’ and ‘male’. Salva veritate – A rule of the language? Language doesn’t come presented as a rule book. Problem of Quine: What is the meaning of analytic?  Means containment  Means true in all possible worlds  means truth of definition  means rule of language  means necessary truth  means analytic Circular – no distinction between analytic and synthetic. Truth of meaning – what does ‘meaning’ mean? Ex. Bachlor means unmarried man = x’s are x’s – which is a logical truth P & P P = Q P therefore Q ~(Pv~Q) LP – meaning of any sentence is an observation. Two sentences have the same meaning if two observations are associated with them What is the meaning of analytic?  Means containment  Means true in all possible worlds  means truth of definition  means rule of language  means necessary truth  means analytic  Truth of meaning Verification conditions  Point at the things which a sentence means. Observations that have to hold for the sentence to be true (ex. That means ‘here is a chair’). T (Theory sentence) – electrons spin counter clockwise O (Observation sentence) – Lights will turn on when I flip the switch T T & O ~O Theory sentence  bridge law  set of possible predictions/observations Bridge sentences are partial reductions. T – electrons spin counter clockwise O – Lights will turn on when I flip the switch T T & O O (false) But the ligh
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