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Lecture 5

PSY 302 Lecture 5: Chapter 6: Development of Language and Symbol Use

by OneClass964185 , Winter 2016
9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY302
Professor
Dana Williams
Lecture
5

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Week 6 Chapter 6: Language
Development
Language: flexible, productive, inventive
- 45 sounds, can create a million different variations
Nature and nurture
Sociocultural comparisons
Individual differences
Active child
Components of Language
- Phonology: phonemes (basic units of sound)
oNo sr, bn, ng sounds
- Semantics: morphemes (can be free or bound)
oFree: can stand alone
oBound: prefix/suffix
- Syntax: grammar
oRules that specify how rules are to be combined
o“Dog chased the cat” “dog was chased by the cat”
o“It was a great day for John and I.” bad grammar, you would say me
o“Nurse’s say its a mans world.”
- Pragmatics: knowledge about how to use language in the real world to get your
meaning across
oChildren know that they need to speak slower and less complex words to
someone younger
oHave to be more polite when talking to adults
oRealizing to take turns when speaking
oTake into account what the listener knows and doesn’t know
oShould not talk to strangers
- Metalinguistic knowledge
oKnowledge about language and its properties
oLanguage is made up of morphemes, have to be in proper order and certain
grammar
- Nonverbal signals
oHelp give meaning to words
oE.g. facial expressions, gestures
Stages in language development
- Before language: pre-linguistic period (first 10-13 months of life)
oNewborn babies would like to hear speech more than any other kind of sounds
oEarly reactions to speech: differentiating phonemes
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Can differentiate phonemes better that adults can
Perceptual narrowing: at 7 months, lose the ability to hear phonemes
that are not in their own language; narrow it down to their own language
oIntonation/prosody
Intonation: rise and fall in the sound of your voice when you speak
Babies pay attention to intonation of words
E.g. motherese (infant-directing speech)
oIntonation “look at the cup! The cup is so small!”
High-pitch at the end excites them
Low-pitch at the beginning soothes them
Prosody: rhythm or melody of the language
E.g. Indian accent
Babies like to hear prosody of their own language
oWord segmentation
Hearing big long sentence, baby able to pick out certain words
E.g. Siri trying to figure out what you’re saying
Say “dad-dy” “mom-my” repeatedly and they will figure out that it’s a
word
oProducing sounds
First sound @ 2 months: cooing
6-10 months: babbling (consonant-vowel repeatedly)
E.g. ba, ma, pa, na, da
Deaf babies can coo and babble the same ways
After 6 months, deaf babies coo and babble less
After 6 months, normal babies can coo and babble according to their
prosody
oPragmatics of speech
8 months, good at vocal term taking
they babble, you talk
Gestures start here
Declarative gestures
oBaby directing your attention to something
oHand in hand with joint attention
Imperative gestures
oGrant a request, asking for something
oE.g. tug on pants, arms out asking to carry
oDo preverbal infants understand the meaning of words?
Receptive language: all the words that you understand
Productive language: words that you actually speak out
E.g. 10 month olds: can understand 11-154 words but aren’t speaking any
of them yet
- Holophrastic period (12-18 months)
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find more resources at oneclass.com
oHolophrase: 1 word sentence (baby talk)
E.g. will say “cup” but mean “get me more water in my cup”
First words they will use are objects, familiar people, objects that can be
manipulated, objects that can move, action words
Learn faster with multimodal motion motherese
E.g. say “see the bunny jump” and show action
oIndividual and cultural variations in early language
Referential style
Early vocabulary mainly consists of nouns, objects and people
Naming things
oE.g. will ask “what’s that?” about everything they see
Western countries first born more likely to have this style first
Expressive style
More diverse vocabulary
Have a larger number of personal social words
oE.g. please, thank you, don’t, stop it
Use words to call attention to feelings and regulate social
interactions
Pay more attention to overall sound of language rather than
individual sounds of language
Western countries second born more likely to have this style first
Wait and see style
Can speak language later than other kids
Child knows meaning of words but doesn’t speak
Bad sign: don’t know meaning of word and cannot speak
Kids with down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and deaf
children have more chances in getting language problems
Koreans, Japanese, and Chinese people know more verbs than
Western countries
- Telegraphic period (1 ½ - 2 ½ years)
oBabies talk just like how someone talks when they’re sending a telegraph to
someone
oUsually have 2-word sentences, containing critical content words (nouns, verbs,
adjective)
oLeave out articles (e.g. the), prepositions, pronouns, axillary verbs
oNaming explosion: may learn 10-20 words per week
oFast-mapping process
Quickly learn meaning of words after hearing the word once
Only occurs if the baby and the speaker are jointly attending to
something
oOverextensions and underextensions
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
Week 6 – Chapter 6: Language Development Language: flexible, productive, inventive - 45 sounds, can create a million different variations Nature and nurture Sociocultural comparisons Individual differences Active child Components of Language - Phonology: phonemes (basic units of sound) o No sr, bn, ng sounds - Semantics: morphemes (can be free or bound) o Free: can stand alone o Bound: prefix/suffix - Syntax: grammar o Rules that specify how rules are to be combined o “Dog chased the cat” “dog was chased by the cat” o “It was a great day for John and I.” bad grammar, you would say me o “Nurse’s say its a mans world.” - Pragmatics: knowledge about how to use language in the real world to get your meaning across o Children know that they need to speak slower and less complex words to someone younger o Have to be more polite when talking to adults o Realizing to take turns when speaking o Take into account what the listener knows and doesn’t know o Should not talk to strangers - Metalinguistic knowledge o Knowledge about language and its properties o Language is made up of morphemes, have to be in proper order and certain grammar - Nonverbal signals o Help give meaning to words o E.g. facial expressions, gestures Stages in language development - Before language: pre-linguistic period (first 10-13 months of life) o Newborn babies would like to hear speech more than any other kind of sounds o Early reactions to speech: differentiating phonemes  Can differentiate phonemes better that adults can  Perceptual narrowing: at 7 months, lose the ability to hear phonemes that are not in their own language; narrow it down to their own language o Intonation/prosody  Intonation: rise and fall in the sound of your voice when you speak  Babies pay attention to intonation of words  E.g. motherese (infant-directing speech) o Intonation “look at the cup! The cup is so small!”  High-pitch at the end excites them  Low-pitch at the beginning soothes them  Prosody: rhythm or melody of the language  E.g. Indian accent  Babies like to hear prosody of their own language o Word segmentation  Hearing big long sentence, baby able to pick out certain words  E.g. Siri trying to figure out what you’re saying  Say “dad-dy” “mom-my” repeatedly and they will figure out that it’s a word o Producing sounds  First sound @ 2 months: cooing  6-10 months: babbling (consonant-vowel repeatedly)  E.g. ba, ma, pa, na, da  Deaf babies can coo and babble the same ways  After 6 months, deaf babies coo and babble less  After 6 months, normal babies can coo and babble according to their prosody o Pragmatics of speech  8 months, good at vocal term taking  they babble, you talk  Gestures start here  Declarative gestures o Baby directing your attention to something o Hand in hand with joint attention  Imperative gestures o Grant a request, asking for something o E.g. tug on pants, arms out asking to carry o Do preverbal infants understand the meaning of words?  Receptive language: all the words that you understand  Productive language: words that you actually speak out  E.g. 10 month olds: can understand 11-154 words but aren’t speaking any of them yet - Holophrastic period (12-18 months) o Holophrase: 1 word sentence (baby talk)  E.g. will say “cup” but mean “get me more water in my cup”  First words they will use are objects, familiar people, objects that can be manipulated, objects that can move, action words  Learn faster with multimodal motion motherese  E.g. say “see the bunny jump” and show action o Individual and cultural variations in early language  Referential style  Early vocabulary mainly consists of nouns, objects and people  Naming things o E.g. will ask “what’s that?” about everything they see  Western countries first born more likely to have this style first  Expressive style  More diverse vocabulary  Have a larger number of personal social words o E.g. please, thank you, don’t, stop it  Use words to call attention to feelings and regulate social interactions  Pay more attention to overall sound of language rather than individual sounds of language  Western countries second born more likely to have this style first  Wait and see style  Can speak language later than other kids  Child knows meaning of words but doesn’t speak  Bad sign: don’t know meaning of word and cannot speak  Kids with down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and deaf children have more chances in getting language problems  Koreans, Japanese, and Chinese people know more verbs than Western countries - Telegraphic period (1 ½ - 2 ½ years) o Babies talk just like how someone talks when they’re sending a telegraph to someone o Usually have 2-word sentences, containing critical content words (nouns, verbs, adjective) o Leave out articles (e.g. the), prepositions, pronouns, axillary verbs o Naming explosion: may learn 10-20 words per week o Fast-mapping process  Quickly learn meaning of words after hearing the word once  Only occurs if the baby and the speaker are jointly attending to something o Overextensions and underextensions  Overextension: when a term is used to represent more categories than it actually does  E.g. call all 4-legged animals “doggie”, all round things “ball”  Could be because they don’t know the thing or don’t remember  Shape bias: if something is a ball, they will think all round things are a ball  Underextension: child acquires a word for a specific thing and fails to extend it to other objects in the same category  They think cookies are only chocolate chip cookies  Her father’s car is the only car, everything else is a truck o Strategies for inferring word meanings: procession constraints  Whole object constraint  If you point to a laptop, they think laptop is the whole object o Doesn’t take into account keys, touchpad, screen, etc.  Mutual exclusivity  Assumption that each object has its own label o E.g. can’t call spoon a fork and vice versa  Pragmatic cues: eye gaze, intentionality, emotional response  If you’re looking at a field of horses, and you say “look at that horse” and the baby will follow your gaze  If you pick up a purse and it accidentally falls, baby will not think that was intentional  You say “im looking for the gazer” and you look for it and find it you get happy and baby sees your reaction and learns that that was the gazer  Grammatical cues: syntactical bootstrapping  Based on the grammatical structure of the sentence, you can figure out if a specific word is a noun, verb, etc.  Pragmatics of early speech  Get very good at vocal term taking  Know to look at the listener when they are about to yield the floor?  Make more elaborate request for a toy when they know someone doesn’t know where it is - Language learning during preschool period (2 ½ - 5 years) o Know difference between past and present tense o Overregularization: overextend new grammatical morphemes to irregular cases  E.g. 2 mouses; it broked  Know that “es” makes a word plural  Knows that “ed” makes a word past tense o Berko’s WUG study demonstrated children’s (4-6 years) knowledge of morphemes (check textbook)  E.g. here is a wug. Now there are 2. There are 2 wugs. (z sound)  Here is a bix…. There are 2 bixes (z sound)  Here is a nis… there are 2 nises (s sound)  … he ricks every day. Yesterday he ricked (t sound)  Here is a goose… there are 2 gooses o Mastering rules of syntax  Asking questions (2 ½ - 3 years)  Eat cookie? What daddy eat? What daddy is eating? What is daddy eating?  Producing negative sentences (2 ½ - 3 years)  No eat. I not eat dinner. I won’t eat dinner.  Producing complex sentences (3 years)  That is the dinner that mommy made. That is the dinner, and that is the lunch. The friend who came to dinner went home. You’ll come for dinner, won’t you?  Passive sentences (very difficult for children younger than 5 or 6)  The boy was hit by the girl. The candy was eaten by the girl.  Conversational skills: collective monologues using non sequiturs and narratives  Non sequiturs: someone says something, other person says someth
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