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Anatomy and Physiology - Blood

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BIOL 271
Danillo Viana

Chapter 10 – Blood  Blood o Only fluid tissue  Type of tissue: connective tissue  Connective tissue cells are scattered and make their Own matrix of collagen, elastin, o Components of blood  Living cells – formed elements  Non-living matrix – plasma  Centrifuged Blood – formed elements and plasma o Plasma – rises to top (volume 55%) o Erythrocytes – RBS – bottom (volume 45%) known as hematocrit o Buffy Coat – leukocytes and thrombocytes (<1%) ****Know for the test  Need to be familiar with the numbers per mm3  Physical Characteristics of Blood o Colour Range:  Scarlet Red =  Dull Red = o pH Range – homeostasis is: 7.35-7.45 o Body temp = 37 o Blood temp = 38 o Blood volume  Adult female = 4-5L  Adult male = 5-6L o Blood ~ 8% of body weight  Blood Plasma o Main constituent of plasma is = water (90-92%) o Dissolved substances – (solutions? Humoral?)  Nutrients  Salts (electrolytes) (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+  Respiratory gases  Hormones  Plasma proteins  Waste products o Plasma Proteins  Most abundant solutes in plasma  Most made in the liver  Osmotic effect of proteins: pull water  Various plasma proteins include:  Albumin – main role is = osmosis  Clotting proteins – main role is = “plug” or clot a cut  Antibodies – main role is = made by B-Lymphocytes and are involved in the immune system, also pull water (osmosis) o pH range of blood is = 7.35-7.45  o Acidosis is = an increased acidity in the blood and other body tissue o Alkalosis is = a condition reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma, the body fluids have excess base o Respiratory system and kidneys – help restore blood pH to normal o Blood proteins and even formed elements also play a role – pick up or release H  Formed Elements o Erythrocytes (RBCs)  Main function is: carries oxygen by means of a chemical called hemoglobin (“hem”=iron – Fe)  Erythrocyte anatomy o Biconcave disks – lost the nucleus and all organelles resulting in shape o “Bags” of hemoglobin o Anucleate – no nucleus therefore will die within 100-120 days o Contain very few organelles  What’s the affect? o Five million RBCs per cubic millimeter of blood  Hemoglobin (
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