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Neanderthal Body Size and appearance.docx

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Langara College
ANTH 1131

Neanderthal Body Size and appearance Body Size and Climates:  The warmer environment you are adapted to, the larger the crural index is  Recognized that body size, body proportions and climate have correlations between one another  Bergmann’s rule: body mass tends to be greater in population that live in cold environments  The bigger you are, the less skin you have for your internal mass  You can control internal body heat better if you are smaller  Allen’s rule: shorter appendages are adaptive in cold climates  Both conditions, such as being smaller and smaller appendages, result in increased body mass to surface area  This is more effective at preventing body heat loss Neanderthal Skeletal Morphology, Continued:  Cranial Skeleton from the Side:  Long, low cranial vault  Mid-facial prognathism (their nose is what sticks out the most)  Fairly prominent to reduced brow ridges  Have a back-ward sloping forehead  The back of their skull are fairly flat; more common in Neanderthals than heidelbergensis  They have an occipital “bun”  Small mastoid process  They have a retro-molar gap – behind their wisdom teeth, there is a space  They don’t have much of a chin  A lot of these characteristics are related to one another – if you had a flatter face like we did, then it would result in the loss o the retro-molar gap and a more formulated chin  Cranial Skeleton from the Front:  Eye orbits are more circular, as opposed to squares like modern humans  Large nasal aperture  They have double brow ridges  Cranial Skeleton from the Back:  Cranium is oval  Widest point is mid-way up the sides  Have a small depression at the back of the skull, a suprainiac
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