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Respiratory and Circulatory system.docx

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BIOL 1115

 Animals are aerobic organism so they need oxygen to supply their body tissues. (both land and water creatures)  Animals are multicellular; therefore, they have a lot of cells making diffusion ineffective because of the lack of speed.  Animals developed a system that facilitates nutrient and gas exchange referred as convective systems. This requires energy.  Both are closely related because they are developed to speed up gas and material exchange in the body.  This protects the alveoli from rubbing off as the lungs slide against the rib cage during breathing.  A smooth layer of connective tissues protects the outside of the lungs.  To increase the amount of surface area in the lungs for gas exchange. Also they are only 1 cell thick so diffusion of material and gas is easy.  Oxygen is an amazing electron accepter because it always wants to become neutral (-2). This is important in mitochondrial electron transfer chain where most of the ATP is produced. (around 36-38 per molecule of glucose)  No, because splitting glucose into 2 pyruvic don’t require oxygen, but it only gives us a Net of 2 ATP.  Lactic acid increases the most in blood with exercise.  Lactic acid is produced as an end product of pyruvic acid.  The cell must be thin and moist.  The direction of rate of exchange of gas is determined by the difference in partial pressure of that gas across the exchange surface.  Partial pressure is a measure of the relative concentration of that gas in the system. It is calculated by getting the atmospheric pressure and multiplying 0.80 to calculate nitrogen and 0.20 for oxygen.  The body will have harder time to get rid of CO2 at the lungs  Vital capacity is defined as the maximum volume of air that can be exchanged by the lungs. There will always be air left in the lungs.  Residual volume is the air left in the lungs because this prevents the lungs from collapsing and the alveoli from touching.  Normal tide volume under a normal condition.  Depends if the person is physically fit or unfit.  The circulatory systems of animals consist of a pump (heart) and a system of tubes that circulate of fluid.  Found in many invertebrates including insects, consist of a heart, which pumps blood but does not deliver the blood by blood vessels to the tissues. Hence, all the heart does is
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