Animals are aerobic organism so they need oxygen to supply their body tissues. (both land and
Animals are multicellular; therefore, they have a lot of cells making diffusion ineffective because
of the lack of speed.
Animals developed a system that facilitates nutrient and gas exchange referred as convective
systems. This requires energy.
Both are closely related because they are developed to speed up gas and material exchange in
This protects the alveoli from rubbing off as the lungs slide against the rib cage during breathing.
A smooth layer of connective tissues protects the outside of the lungs.
To increase the amount of surface area in the lungs for gas exchange. Also they are only 1 cell
thick so diffusion of material and gas is easy.
Oxygen is an amazing electron accepter because it always wants to become neutral (-2). This is
important in mitochondrial electron transfer chain where most of the ATP is produced. (around
36-38 per molecule of glucose) No, because splitting glucose into 2 pyruvic don’t require oxygen, but it only gives us a Net of 2
Lactic acid increases the most in blood with exercise.
Lactic acid is produced as an end product of pyruvic acid.
The cell must be thin and moist.
The direction of rate of exchange of gas is determined by the difference in partial pressure of
that gas across the exchange surface.
Partial pressure is a measure of the relative concentration of that gas in the system. It is
calculated by getting the atmospheric pressure and multiplying 0.80 to calculate nitrogen and
0.20 for oxygen.
The body will have harder time to get rid of CO2 at the lungs
Vital capacity is defined as the maximum volume of air that can be exchanged by the lungs.
There will always be air left in the lungs.
Residual volume is the air left in the lungs because this prevents the lungs from collapsing and
the alveoli from touching.
Normal tide volume under a normal condition. Depends if the person is physically fit or unfit.
The circulatory systems of animals consist of a pump (heart) and a system of tubes that circulate
Found in many invertebrates including insects, consist of a heart, which pumps blood but does
not deliver the blood by blood vessels to the tissues. Hence, all the heart does is