MARK 3200 Lecture 14: Chapter 14

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9 Aug 2016
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Chapter14:CulturalInfluencesonConsumerBehaviour
Thischapterisabouthowcultureinfluencesconsumerbehaviourandhowthedifferentcultures
areliketheperseonalitiesthatshapetheindividuals.Asmarketerswehavetounderstsandthe
values,thenormsandthemythsandtheritualsofeachdifferentcultureandhowtheyaffectthe
waysofconsumersbuyproductsonadailybasis.Andsometimesculturespercievedsome
itemsspecialformsandtheyhavememoriesandhavesymbolsattachedtothematthesame
time.
UnderstandingCulture
Cultureisasociety’spersonality,andincludes:
 Abstractideas
 Materialobjects&services
Theaccumulationofsharedmeanings,ritualsnormsandtraditionsareimportanttoeachculture
 Itishardtoseetheculturalfirsthandunlessyouwalkintotheirshoesfirst
Productsweusecantellusalotaboutthecultureprocessinaparticularperiod
 TheTVdinner
 CosmeticsandCondoms
AspectsofCulture
3functionalareasofculture:
1) Ecology:thewaytheproducthasadaptedintoitsenvironment
 Shapedbytechnologyinourdailylife
2) SocialStructure:howoderlyoursociallifeismaintained
 NuclearvsExtendedFamilies
3) Ideology:mentalcharacteristicofagroupandhowtheyrelatetotheirenvironment
 Worldview:principleoforderandfairness
 Ethos:Moralsandaestheticprinciplesthatembodiespeoplemoodorcharacter
CulturalValues
Manyvaluesareuniversal
Whatsetsacultureapartiswhichvaluesareseenasbeingrelativelymoreimportant
 Corevaluescanusuallybeidentifiedforeachculture
IE:NAwevaluefreedom,youthfulnessandachievement,whileJPNissecurity&hygiene
Marketingmessagesappealingto1culturemaysometimesnottotheothers
MeasuringCrossCulturalValues
GeertHofstedecameupwith5waystomeasurecrossculturevalues
1) PowerDistance:howheirarchyworkswhencreatedarelationshipwitheachother
2) UncertaintyAvoidance:basedonrulesandregulationtolerancecanbecreatedforthem
3) MascVsFem:thedifferencesbetweenwhatisconsideredokayformen/womenin
society
4) IndividualVsCollectism:valuesofwelfareofotherstoselfwithintheculture
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5) LongTermOrientation:focusonfuturegenerationsandtraditionsfortheculture
CulturalNorms
Norms:rulesdictatingwhatisrightandwhatiswrong
EnactedNorms:explicitlydecided(RulesoftheRoad)
CresciveNorms:embeddedintoculture(3typesofthem)
1) Customs:normshadeddownfrompastandcontrolbasicbehaviour
 IE:ChineseNewYears
2) Mores:customswithastrongmoralovertone
 IE:mealsinKorean&India
3) Conventions:normsregardingtheconductofeverydaylife
 IE:utensilsusedinCanadaandAsiaetc
Allofthese3combinetodefineculturallyappropriatebehaviour
MythsandRituals
Everyculturedevelopspracticesthathelpmakesensetotheworld
Myths/Ritualscanseembizarre
Magicalproductsandinterestinocculttendtobemorepopularwhenmembersofthesociety
feeloverwhelmedandpowerlessfromtheproduct
Myths
Myths:storycontainingsymbolicelementsthatrepresentthesharedemotions/idealsofa
culture
Conflictbetweenopposingforces
Outcomeisamoralguideline
Reducesanxiety
Marketerscreate&playuponmyths
Monomyths:myththatiscommontomanyculturesoftenaherothatemergesandwinoverevil
FunctionsandStructureofMyths
4interrelatedfunctionsinaculture:
1) Metphysicalexplainstheoriginsofexistance
2) Cosmologicalemphasizethecomponentsoftheuniverseintoapicture
3) Sociologicalmaintainsocialorderwithasocialcodetofollow
4) Psychologicalprovidemodelsforpersonalconduct
Rituals
Rituals:setormultiplesymbolicbehavioursthatoccurinafixedsequenceandthattendtobe
repeatedperiodically
Manyconsumersactivitiesarereitualistics:(MorningStarbucks)
CollegeCampusRituals(Frathousesetc)
BusinesssupplyritualartifactsitemsthatneedtoperformtheritualsIE:weddingrings,cakes
Consumersoftenemployaritualscript(graduationprograms,weddingitinerary)\
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