CHEM 180 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Styrene, Anthocyanin, Burnt Sugar

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21 Jul 2016
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!"a"cup"of"52EE;;"contains"about"10mg"known"59?54>2=;>@"(acrylamide,"caffeic"acid,"benzene,"styrene,"formaldehyde,"
furfural),"but"we"know"that"coffee"doesn’t"cause"cancer"
" !"they’re"just"in"small"amounts,"so"they’re"4>52>@;dK;>:498"
" !"coffee"contains"9>:42X4F9>:@"which"can"mitigate"that"effects"of"carcinogens"
" !"flavanol,"ascorbic"acid"&"alpha!tocopherol"are"all"antioxidants"that"may"counteract"the"effect"of"carcinogens"in"the"
food"supply"
!"when"rodents"are"fed"EK?EK?98,"200"mg"per"kg"body"weight,"cancer"forms"
" !"furfural"is"in"grains;"don’t"need"to"label"bread"as"carcinogenic"bc"there’s"only"trace"amounts"
" !"need"to"eat"6000"loaves"of"bread"to"match"the"furfural"dose"that’s"carcinogenic"to"rats"
Video"4"
!"a"tunnel"in"Sweden"had"water"leakage"&"they"put"N9:;?b9C@2?C;>:&328L95?L89B4F;&=;8"into"the"cement"mortar"
!"it"got"into"the"water"table"&"in"1997"cows"in"the"area"nearby"got"sick"from"eating"in"the"pastures"
!"Dr."Margaret"02?>dK4@:"at"Uni"of"Stockholm"investigated"it!"soil"&"water"was"contaminated"with"95?L89B4F;,"a"
breakdown"product"of"polyacrylamide"
!"she"discovered"that"acrylamide"is"in"a"variety"of"foods;"ex."'?;>57&E?4;@"
!"acrylamide"forms"naturally"when"foods"are"heated"to"a"high"temp"
" !"fries"cooked"at"175"degrees"C"have"300"ppb"acrylamide"
" !"by"4>5?;9@4>=&2>8L&Y&F;=?;;@&:2&A6V&F;=?;;@,"they"have"AAVV&33Cjj"
!"=8K52@;"in"starchy"foods"reacts"with"9@39?9=4>;,"an"amino"acid"under"high"temps"to"form"acrylamide"
" !"even"N7;9:"has"a"small"amount"of"protein,"so"when"heated"it"form"acrylamide"
!"“Cancer"alert:"bread"&"French"fires"linked"to"cancer”"
" !"all"we"know"is"that"acrylamide"is"a"59?54>2=;>,"but">2&9@@2549:42>"has"been"made"btwn"occupational"exposure"
(those"that"work"with"the"chemical"often)"to"acrylamide"&"cancer""
" !"“Absence"of"association"btwn"dietary"acrylamide"&"bowel,"kidney,"bladder"cancer,"in"case"control"study”""
" !"prospective"study"shows"no"associations"either"
!"O?23&^Y&4>&(984E2?>49!"any"substance"that"is"known"to"cause"cancer"must"be"revealed"to"the"public"
" !"ex."at"fast"foods"restaurants,"89C;8@&9FM4@;&9C2K:&95?L89B4F;"on"fries"
" !"even"signs"in"Disneyland"warn"that"it"contains"chemical"known"to"cause"cancer"
" !"these"warnings"really"have"no"effect"
" !"they"also"want"the"warning"on"cola"drinks"
"!"should"warn"that"there"is"40"grams"of"sugar"in"cola,"but"they"warn"about"59?9B;8""
" !"caramel"is"burnt"sugar;"when"sugar"is"heat,"it"forms"RbB;:7L84B4F9J28;"
" !"rodents"given"equivalent"of"more"than"10,000"cans"of"cola"per"day"
" !"increase"in"some"cancer,"decrease"in"mammary"gland"cancer"
" !"not"enough"evidence"to"cut"caramel"out"of"human"diet"
!"“Only"the"does"makes"the"poison”"–"Paracelsus"!"the"cornerstone"of"toxicology"
" !"#4@`&k&)9J9?F&Z3?2C8;Bb59K@4>=&3?23;?:L&2E&@KC@:9>5;[&l&*X32@K?;&l&S;>@4:4M4:L"
" !"ex."infants"are"more"sensitive"to"substances"than"adults"
" !"dose"is"important"in"prevention"as"well"
Video"5"
!"9>:4b59?54>2=;>@:"substance"known"to"inhibit"the"development"of"cancer"(ex."antioxidants)"
!"9>:4b2X4F9>:@:"neutralize"free"radicals"(any"species"capable"of"independent"existence"even"if"it"contains"one"or"more"
unpaired"electrons)"
!"single"electrons"want"to"double"up;"to"get"another"electron,"it"tries"to"steal"electrons"from"somewhere"else"
!"when"a"E?;;&?9F4598"removes"an"electron"from"another"molecule"that"molecule"will"start"to"fall"apart"
!"if"DNA"starts"t"fall"apart,"cancer"can"be"initiated"
!"antioxidants"donate"an"electron"to"a"free"radical;"then"they"become"free"radicals"but"tend"to"be"stable,"not"engaging"any"
further"chemical"chain"reaction"
!"there"are"thousands"of"antioxidants"mostly"found"in"E?K4:@&<&M;==4;@&
" !"ex."Vite"A,"Vite"E,"Vite"C,"BHT"(preservative),"Ellagic"Acid"(in"tea)"
!"328L37;>28@"are"also"antioxidants,"ex."flavanols,"isoflavones"
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