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Lecture 3

BIOL Lecture 3-5.pdf

14 Pages

Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Heather Roffey

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051010 223 AM LECTURE 3 DIVERSITY OF LIFE AND PROKARYOTES PreLecture VocabularyCell wallA relatively rigid structure that encloses cells of plants fungi many protists and most prokaryotes Gives these cells their shape and limits their expansion in hypotonic mediaMembraneenclosed organelleOrganized structures found in or on eukaryotic cells Examples include ribosomes nuclei mitochondria Golgi apparatus NucleusThe centrally located compartment of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a double membrane and contains the chromosomesCytoskeletonthe network of microtubules and microfilaments that gives a eukaryotic cell its shape and its capacity to arrange its organelles and to movePhotosynthesis ATP adenosine triphosphatean energy storage compound containing adenine ribose and three phosphate groups When it is formed from ADP useful energy is stored when it is broken down to ADP or AMP energy is released to drive endergonic reactionsCellular respirationthe catabolic pathways by which electrons are removed from various molecules and passed through intermediate electron carriers to O generating HO and releasing energy 22 Taxona biological group specifically a species or a clade that is given a nameGlycolysisThe enzymatic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid One of the evolutionary oldest of the cellular energyyielding mechanismsLecture Notes Lecture OutlineDiversity of lifeo What is diversity o How is diversity measured o Which groups show the greatest diversityProkaryotes o Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes o Cell structure and morphology o 3 challenges of life What is diversityDiversity in life degree of difference ino Genetic variation within a species o Species composition within a community o Interactions within and between ecosystemsBiodiversity more diversehealthierSpecies diversityo This is commonly reserved for indices that measure both the number of species in a habitat as well as their relative abundance We have no idea how many species of life exist todaycant estimate the diversity of prokaryotesProkaryotes first appeared in the Precambrian era3100 million extant eukaryotic species Bacteria and Archaeas numbers are completely unknown99 of all species are extinctMost species live in the tropics Neotropicsbrazil etcArthropods most diversityplantsMolluscsfungivertebratesfishreptilesamphibiansbirdsmammals o Most taxonomists are vertebrate invertebrate or fossilMan factors that control diversity o Area In general doubling the area increases number of species by 1025 o Climate Warm wet areas have more species not sure whyOther measures of diversity o So far we have focused on numeric diversity ie number of species o Genetic diversitymeasure of genetic distance evolutionary separationProkaryotes show greatest o Functional diversitydifferences in shape size and generally ways of making a living types of food places lived etcProkaryotes show greatestSummary on diversity of lifeThere are likely710 million extant species99 of Earths species are extinctDiversity is greatest near equator on large landmasses with goodwarm wet climatesTaxonomists have quantified animalsinsectsbeetles as most diverseProkaryotesAre the earths oldest organismsTwo major groups o Bacteria o Archaea which are closer to eukaryotes Prokaryotes vs EukaryotesNucleus Eukaryotes have prokaryotes do notDNAProkaryotes have 1 chromosome circular and plasmidseukaryotes have linear chromosomesMembrane bound organellesProkaryotes do not have eukaryotes haceRibosomesProkaryotes have smaller 70s photosynthesis eukaryotes have larger 80sCytoskeletonProkaryotes no eukaryotes have oProkaryotic cells lack a cytoskeleton and in the absence of organized cytoskeletal proteins the lack mitosis Prokaryotes divide by their own method binary fission after replicating their DNACell wall prokaryotes yes peptidoglycan in bacteria only eukaryotes yes in somePhotosynthesisprokaryotes yes in some eukaryotes yes in someArchaea Defining characteristicsKnow very littleAbsence of peptidoglycan in cell wallDistinctive lipids present in their cell membranes not found in eukaryotes or bacteriaMany archaea also have lipid monolayer cell membrane may be made of long chain hydrocarbons that span the membraneMany archaea and bacteria have a single chromosomeplasmids o Chromosome not highly coiled o In nucleoid region o Plasmidextrachromosonal DNA small rings easily exchanged during sex
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