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Angiosperms and Gymnosperms.docx

5 Pages

Biology (Sci)
Course Code
BIOL 111
Suzanne Gray

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Two major groups of angiosperms: dicots and monocots  Root System: tap root vs. fibrous root  Leaf base: petiole vs. sheath  Lead venation: reticulate vs. parallel  Bilateral symmetry  Roots below the ground are equal to the amount of leaves above the ground MTwo major groups of angiosperms:oot for food storage, propagation and defense and mechanical support. (example: a potato grows tuber – modified stems to create more Dicots and monocotspotato plants) Pay attention to: Root system: tap root vs. fibrous root. Leaf base: petiole vs. Sheath Leaf venation: reticulate vs. parallel 2 4 The dermal tissue system is the outer covering of the plant. The ground tissue system carries out photosynthesis, stores photosynthetic products and helps support leaves The vascular tissue system conducts water and solutes throughout the plant Girth (diameter) of plant increased by secondary growth Increase in plant height by primary group of the meristem Vascular Bundles in Stems:  In a cross-section of the stem, vascular bundles are arranged differently in dicots (in a ring) and monocots (scattered).  In dicots, cambium of adjacent vascular bundles gets joined forming a cambial ring. The cell division activity of the cambial ring forms sec xylem towards inside sec phloem towards outside, constituting secondary growth.  You can determine the age of a tree by counting the number of rings in its cross section. of a tree gives its. How old is this tree? Within an annual ring, cells formed during wet season are larger than cells formed during drier season.  Thus an examination of annual rings in tree cross- sections can tell us about past climate.  Phloem is smaller and living, unlike xylem  ^ this is secondary growth Increase in stem diameter by secondary growth which gives rise to concentric annual rings: Age of a tree, cells formed during wet season are larger than cells formed during Internal structutre of primary rootll us about past climates Internal Structure of Primary Root: Note the difference in the arrangement of vascular system in a dicot and a monocot primary root. 7 Simple and Compound Leaves: How can you tell a simple leaf from a leaflet of a compound leaf? Simple leaves are those with a single blade. Some compound leaves consist of leaflets arranged along a central axis. Further division of the axis results in a doubly compound leaf.  Compound: no bud in the leaflets, that’s how you distinguish a leaf from a leaflet  Stoma: more common on the lower surfaces Diffusion and Osmosis:  Diffusion is movement of molecules due to their internal thermal/kinetic energy.  Osmosis is diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane o Hypertonic: on the outside (concentrate solutes outside) o Isotonic: equivalent solute concentration o Hypotonic: on the outside (dilute solutes outside)  Selectively permeable vs. semi-permeable  Movement of water and mineral ions from the soil to the root xylem: apoplastic (material passes through meshwork of the cell walls and extracellular spaces without crossing the plasma membrane) and symplastic (continuous meshwork of the interiors of living cells in the plant body, resulting from the presence of plasmodesmata; cytoplasmic strand connecting two cells)
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