BIOL 112 Winter 2013
Schoeck – Lecture 4
Large Molecules 2: Nucleic Acids and Lipids
Nucleic Acids are a polymer.
The nucleotides are its monomers.
Their roles include:
o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acids) which has the information to
our genetic makeup
o DNA is transcribed into RNA (ribonucleic acid) which is
translated into proteins
o Nucleotides also signal molecules and energy transducers
A nucleotide has a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and
[Make references to the picture to the right when looking for C#]
Pentose sugar – the backbone
Phosphates – connected to C5
The group is normally joined to C5 hydroxyl of the ribose or deoxyribose.
Mono-, di-, and tri-phosphates are common.
Energy-rich bonds releases energy when broken.
Nitrogenous Bases – Connected to C1
Pyrimidine (ring only) includes
o Uracil* only present
in RNA and replaces
Purine (ring + penta) includes
o Guanine 5’
A phosphodiester linkage is required to connect the
o The phosphate of the second nucleotide