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Lecture 4

BIOL 112 Winter 2013 Lecture 4 - Part 1.docx

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McGill University
Biology (Sci)
BIOL 112
Frieder Schoeck

BIOL 112 Winter 2013 Schoeck – Lecture 4 Large Molecules 2: Nucleic Acids and Lipids Nucleic Acids  Nucleic Acids are a polymer.  The nucleotides are its monomers.  Their roles include: o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acids) which has the information to our genetic makeup o DNA is transcribed into RNA (ribonucleic acid) which is translated into proteins o Nucleotides also signal molecules and energy transducers Nucleotides  A nucleotide has a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and phosphate groups. [Make references to the picture to the right when looking for C#]  Pentose sugar – the backbone  Ribose  RNA  Deoxyribose  DNA  Phosphates – connected to C5  The group is normally joined to C5 hydroxyl of the ribose or deoxyribose.  Mono-, di-, and tri-phosphates are common.  Energy-rich bonds releases energy when broken.  Nitrogenous Bases – Connected to C1  Pyrimidine (ring only) includes o Thymine o Cytosine o Uracil*  only present in RNA and replaces Thymine  Purine (ring + penta) includes o Adenine o Guanine 5’  A phosphodiester linkage is required to connect the nucleotides o The phosphate of the second nucleotide
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