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BIOL 201 Lecture 1-25.doc

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Biology (Sci)
BIOL 201
Gary Brouhard

Lecture 1Major Energy source for EColi is glucosepreferentially uses glucose as its main carbon sourceextracts energy and combines with inorganic compounds to carry out functions for cellular growth and divisionuses these building blocks to convert into AA nt lipids sugars vitamins macromolecules DNARNAproteins polysaccharidesMetabolismseveral pathways that use small fundamental components to build larger macromolecules required for cellular processesuses same macromolecules to break down and provide energygoverned by specific enzymesGlucosepyruvate and small moleculesexergonic catabolic reaction producing ATPuses ATP to build important components AnabolicEnergyability to carry out mechanical workactive transport of small molecules and ionsgenerate macromolecules and building blocksEnergy Ability to do workkinetic and potentialpotentialochemical bondsoconcentration gradientsocharge separations across membranesenergy can be converted from one form to anotherAll chemical reactions are reversibleEquilibrium rate forwardsrate reverse k1ABk2CDproductsreactantsk1k2keqFree energy or GReaction proceeds only if G0G0 reaction from right to leftG0equilibriumStandard free energyG0exergonic energy releasingG0endergonic energy consumingG from A to BG From B to AG A to CG A to BG B to CLecture 2 Metabolism IIRate of reaction depends on reactants involvedso we must know characteristics of reactantsAs reaction proceeds concentrations of A decreases as concentratoin of B is formedCatalysischanges energy required to form a critical transition statetransition state of any chem reaction is when reactants come together in favorable manner to drive the reaction to form productsenzymes or any catalysts decreases the amount of free energy to achieve transition state between reactantsEnzymesspecific catalysts for bio reactionsact by binding to reactants substrates in a way that reduces the energy required to reach transtition stateenzymes affect only the rates of reactionoother properties eg Keq and G emain the sameby forming binding pocket substrate can interact with its enzymeoenzyme substrate complex we can achieve products with much less energy inputowe favor the formation of productsES ESEPRates of enzymatically catalyzed rxns approach a maximal velocity as substrate concentration increasesie any enzyme has a specific maximum velocitycapacity to form productsVmaxVmax is dependent on amount of enzyme in solutionso Vmax doesnt tell us muchBUT the HALFMAX value ie Vmax2 we have a value at which the enzyme produces at half its maximal velocitythe HALF MAX value KmMichaelis constant is a characteristic of the enzymedescribes the affinity of the enzyme for the substrateIf we plot enzyme activity on LineweaverBurk plotdouble reciprocal ploty intercept1Vmaxx intercept1KmslopeKmVmaxEnergy from breakdown of food into smaller molecules is captured b coupling specific rxns to ATP synth and through the process of OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATIONATP generated in cell is used for many processes ie mechanicalLecture 4PhotosynthesisPhotosynthetic organisms Phototrophs capture light energy and use it totransfer H atoms from water to acceptor moleculesform molecular oxygensynth ATP from ADP and Ptransfer H atoms from acceptor to carbons derived from CO2 to form glucose
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