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Lecture 29 - Cellular Development and Cancer.doc

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BIOC 212
Arnim Pause

Lecture 29 Growth FactorsGrowth Factors inhibit cellular apoptosis and are known as survival factorsoSurvival factors usually bind to membrane receptors which activates signaling pathways that prevents apoptosisBy supressing apoptosis activating pathwaysBy activating apoptosis supressing pathways Mitogens are also survival factors that propel the cell into mitosis Nerve cells compete for the survival factors secreted by their target cells This ensures that only a necessary level of cells exist excess cells die The more growth factor the nerve cell receives the larger it grows Compared to a neutrophil cell it is much larger The mTOR pathway Mammalian Target of Rapamycin1Growth factors bind to cell membrane receptors which dimerize and become phosphorylated2The phosphorylated growth factor receptor activates a PI 3 kinase phosphoinositide 3 kinase 3The PI 3kinase phosphorylates a an inositol phospholipid at the 3 position 4Activated inositol phospholipids may activate a TOR kinase a kinase targeted by Rapamycin drug therapy to treat cancerby inhibiting growth5The TOR kinase can activate a S6 kinase or inhibit a 4eBP binding proteinaS6 a ribosomal protein is activated by S6k phosphorylation to increase translation of a subset of mRNA increasing protein production
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