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McGill University
CHEM 180
David Harpp

World of Chemistry: Environment Final Lecture Notes March 11 : Merde King George  King George III suffered from Porphyria (South African type), meaning he had problems with eliminations in his body  Porphyria: condition characterized by elevated fecal levels of photophyrin and corporphyrin at all times, with increased porphyrins at times  Iron overload is a well-established precipitating or aggravating factor in porphyria variegata  His physicians would examine all of his body secretions because of its reddish colour, which came from the high porphyria content  A movie called “The Madness of King George” was made portraying him as a bit crazy and making note of the fact that this part of our lives is really important and can become a real issue for some Areas  Florida Ecological and Evolutionary Symposium (FECES) study feces  Shit Creek is a place in Ireland Euphemisms  England o Public convenience o Water closet o Loo (l’eau)  France o WC o Les Waters  US/Canada o Restroom o Powder room o John  Back in the day people would shout “Gardy loo” before throwing the contents of their chamber pot out of the window Origin of “Shit”  Comes from word “science” which comes from “scitan”  Has identical forms in all tenses  Used in slang (bullshit)  The word poppycock comes from “pappekak” of a Dutch dialect meaning “soft dung” and is used to say “nonsense” Thomas Crapper  The word “shit” is sometimes replaced by the word “crap”  Crapper did not invent the toilet but he was an excellent plumber who made a lot of money producing flushing systems that would directly send whatever was flushed onto the street  His toilets were called “Waterfalls” because the water was kept above the toilet and would fall into the bowl to wash down its contents Victorian Age  During this time, this aspect of life was a real problem  Prince Albert (husband to Queen Victoria) died of cholera at the age of 42 in the Windsor Castle because it had overflowing cesspits (53 total)  For most people of that era, they had a “closestool” where you could open it up, sit down, and do your business o This is where the word stool comes from Public Toilets  Outhouses are still present today o The star symbolizes it’s for men and the moon for women  Other variations of outdoor public toilets exist  Some public toilets are located directly on sidewalks Features  Coprolites are fossilized animal or earlier human feces typically found in caves o They give good information on diets  A foot long (~30cm) coprolite was found in Saskatchewan which came from a Theropod  40cm feces from Sauropods were found and they have the shape of a rock  Turtles can have dung about 4 inches long  Shasta Sloth dung was found to contain DNA of plants it fed on  Different types of animals have different terms for their feces o Birds: splats  Blue-footed boob is a type of bird from the Galapagos o Sea cucumbers: helical o Rabbits: pellets o Cows: pats  Insects: thought by lots of ancient doctors that you could take fly droppings and rub them on your head to get better growth of hair  Earthworms: re-digest the earth and make it richer  Elephants: in the Tsaro Game Park in Africa, about 1500 tons of dung is produced per day by elephants  The Kopi Luwak, a cat-like animal, eats a particular coffee bean and deposits it while it’s only partially digested o These partially digested coffee beans are gathered and sold as one of the most expensive coffees (~$300US/lb) Human Feces  Human feces have been extensively studied o Determination of the Mean Daily Stool Weight o Frequency of Defecation and Bowel Transit Time: Assessment of 1000 Healthy Subjects  Feces constituents (man per 24 hour time): o Total weight (g): 100-2500 (1/4-5+lbs) o Water: 80-2000 (80%) o Dry weight: 20-500 (20%)  Bacteria constitutes half of the dry weight o Fat: 50-80 o Carbohydrates: 20-100 o Iron: 200-300mg o Dry ash: 60-100mg o Phosphorus: 150mg o Calcium: 60mg  The reason why feces can be used as fertilizers is because of its protein, carbohydrates, iron, phosphorus, and calcium content  Females have a mean value that is about 1/3 less than a male in terms of weight for a 24hr period o Female: 295g (+/-110g) o Male: 408g (+/-110g)  The transit time varies enormously o 12.5 hours (+/-5hrs) o People have to go 2-3 times a day to about once every 2 days  Having not gone to the toilet for about 5 days can be an issue because there are things called fecal mutagens that can cause changes in DNA o The longer they stay in the bowel, the more dangerous  People that live in Swaziland (Bantu tribe) eat lots of fibrous material called Betel nuts, and they have very rapid transit time o They have nearly 0 colon cancer rates in that particular tribe, whereas the rates in North America are relatively high o On the other hand, they have high liver cancer rates because they don’t wash the nuts properly and fungal material they ingest can be bad for the liver overall Odour  Comes from a relatively simple molecule called skatole  Has a benzene ring, a 5-member ring on the side that includes nitrogen  The same compound can be found to come from one of the glands (mandibula) of an ant (Leptanila), which is used as one of their “alarm” pheromones  Skatole has been used and still is used in perfumes o It is the substance that provides the fragrant part of the mixture to last longer on the skin and doesn’t interfere with the scent Dung Beetle  About 25% of all species are beetles  The Rhinoceros beetle is the biggest one  Dung beetles are very helpful when it comes to feces control  Dung beetles gather the dung, roll it and bring it back to its home where it will deposit its eggs in it  Baby dung beetles eat the dung  Dung beetles are everywhere on the planet so they are helpful with feces control  They are what gets rid of the 1500 tons/day of elephant dung that would otherwise accumulate in the Tsavo Game Park  A granite statue was built to commemorate the dung beetles outside of the British Airways headquarters in Middlesex  The way the dung beetle handles the dung is quite unique o They take a ball of dung, drop it down underground chambers, lay the eggs, and then the baby beetles eat the dung o It is a very efficient recycling operation  This is very important in Australia o The place was settled by England’s prisoners, who brought cows o In 1788 there were 7 cattle, now there’s 30 million generating 300,000 tons of manure/day which gets handled by dung beetles (also brought over by the English) Sewage Systems  These are required since we don’t have enough dung beetles and we don’t deposit our feces outside  Cholera is a big problem in many parts of the world as animal dung makes its way into the rivers (so do human feces) o The presence of bacteria and pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms is a concern when considering the safety of drinking water o These organisms can cause intestinal infections, dysentery, hepatitis, typhoid fever, cholera, and other illnesses  Testing for all individual pathogens is impractical and expensive o Instead, the EPA has designated the total coliform bacteria (total bacteria count) as a standard to determine the safety of the water  It’s possible to use human feces as fertilizer, which was first recognized about 200 years ago by Justus Von Liebig o He was an important chemist during his era, and said: “Society needs manure more than mathematics” which made sense back then because they needed fertilizer to grow crops o The annual body waste of 100 humans contains 137lbs (62kg) of phosphorus and 55lbs (25kg) of calcium, which are very important aspects of fertilizers Coprostanol (compound)  Formed from the biohydrogenation of cholesterol  This is particularly important when it comes to farms and farm animals  Coprostanol, in hundreds and even thousands of ppb, can be seen off the coast of Australia  Coprostanol is present in the bowel of warm-blooded animals  Cholesterol can come from a variety of sources, like food sources  You can calculate the ratio of coprostanol/cholesterol to use as a tracer for sewage inputs  Coprostanol is normally only produced in the digestive system of humans and higher mammals and is a useful sewage tracer even when fecal bacteria populations have decreased  Cholesterol is present in human feces and is also common in aquatic environments  A calculated ratio of coprostanol (representing sewage contamination) versus the sum of cholesterol and dihydrocholesterol (representing a rough estimate of sewage and non-sewage sources) has been utilized to measure the source of fecal contamination  Cholesterol and coprostanol have practically identical molecules, except for two more hydrogens that are added while in the gut on cholesterol in order to form coprostanol o These two hydrogens are added by an enzyme called Cholesterol Reductase o The chemistry of coprostanol makes it easily removable from the body  We can even distinguish the ratio of cholesterol/coprostanol between animal and human sources  Caffeine monitoring is important as it is a solely human effluent, meaning it’s a marker for human excretions Guano  Guano is defined as bird droppings  Deer Cave, located in Gunung Mulu National park, in Southeast Asia, has an entrance and the interior of the cave is made up of whitish rocks o It turns out the white stuff is actually bat guano  Bat guano is useful for fertilizer, although it would be hard to gather the ones from this cave because it’s quite difficult to get to  The bats fly out of there at night and always turn left as they exit the cave  In the Pacific Ocean, there’s a small island (1.5km in diameter) called Baker Island which has railways and a landing strip on it o This was done for a particular reason: US Guano Act of 1856, where the island was “colonized” by the US in 1857 and they would remove the guano found on there until WWII because of its abundance and its value (fertilizer) due to the amount of seagulls living there  Another island in about the same location called Nauru is known for 2 things o Interesting stamps and guano (its major exports) o Nauru’s president is Marcus Stephen o Nauru’s population is approximately 11,000 and this area is particularly threatened by global warming because the island is very flat and is only about 3-4 feet above sea-levels, meaning that they would be under water pretty fast  Between WWI and WWII, the west coast of South America was known for its guano and Germans would travel all the way there for their fertilizer until Fritz Haber invented a way to make ammonium nitrate o Boats were filled and traveled back to Germany to make war material, because it was their source of ammonia derivatives prior to Haber’s invention  To this day, from space, we can see the whitish colour of the South American west coast due to the massive amount of guano  Between 1840-1880, 20 million tons of guano were exported  In the movie “March of the Penguins” you can see how much guano is deposited by penguins  Dung is used as fuel in Tibet and is actually a very important thing for them o The Yak is celebrated by golden statues over there o This animal provides them with wool, milk, food, skin and dung o They use the dung as fuel because they don’t have lots of trees to collect wood from, and it is used for cooking as well  The same is true in Iceland where there are not many trees Mongolia  Mongolia is very dry (not many trees)  They have lots of Bactrian Camels (two-hump camels) and sheep  Lots of dung is obviously produced and is gathered and stacked in a brick- like fashion  It’s important for animals that the snow doesn’t accumulate too much because the animals eat grass o So without the grass, there won’t be much dung to use as fuel  The houses over there are called Gers, which can be transported to different places on a camel’s back  So the dung is used in stoves to provide heat and a means for cooking inside the Gers  Building materials can be made from dung too (composted animal processed fiber, 7.5% phenol formaldehyde resin) because of its fiber content  Their diets over there is mostly composed of meat and noodles (not too many vegetables), which generally makes them smaller and have life expectancies in the 60s Health  John Harvey Kellogg was a very influential person o He wrote a book called “Physiology & Hygeine” which was one of the first books on this topic o He was against sex because he thought it polluted the body o In the early 1900s, he set up a spa where people would come and get cleansed  The idea was that people had to “evacuate” frequently o As far as retaining water in the skin (keeping the skin hydrated), nothing works better than Vaseline, Crisco, and lard, but people still want to buy the products that smell good and cost a lot  Kellogg had this sort of influence on people o He started one of the most successful cereal companies, which had Psyllium seeds, which are natural laxatives  The Belladonna flower contains atropine, which causes a laxative effect  Rhubarb does this too, but you should be careful about eating raw rhubarb o It’s very sour because it has something called oxalic acid, which is toxic o These molecules dissolve when the rhubarb is cooked, but having more than a couple of bites of raw rhubarb isn’t a good idea Art and Leisure  Piero Manzoni lived only to 30 years old and was a very unusual fellow o He would make, as a piece of art, something called “The Artist’s Breath” o He also canned his own feces, labeling and signing the can, which sold for $30,000US  The Buffalo Chip Throw is an activity that requires someone to throw buffalo dung to see who can throw it the farthest  Ralph A. Lewin wrote a book called “Merde” which talks about how this is a feature of our lives, especially in places like Mongolia as we discussed earlier th March 13 : Biotechnology What is biotechnology?  You think of molecules, DNA, cloning, test tube babies  KFC changed name: From Kentucky Fried Chickens to KFC because they genetically engineered chickens to have more legs  Chickens are genetically modified through cross-breeding over many years  Giant strawberries you find in the store are cross-bred What is it actually?  Biotechnology is the field of science that explores the potential use of biological systems to produce desired products or organisms  Field of Science in which living organisms are used to produced desired ends/products  Using a living system to solve a problem  Using microbes and bacteria to carry out processes for us Fermentation  One of oldest processes known to mankind  Take carbohydrates, expose them to yeast, and convert it to a usable product  Yeast is the living organism  SugarExposed to yeastAlcohol + Carbon Dioxide  Wine is a product of biotechnology (using the process of fermentation) Cheese  Take a group of enzymes (rennetoriginally isolated from the stomach of calves)  Used to take milk and turn it into cheese Yogurt  Take milk and add a bacterial culture to it (lactobacillus bulgaricus)  Takes components in milk (sugar) and converts the lactose into lactic acid that causes the curdling process and causes the sour taste Alexander Fleming and Penicillin (1928)  Interested in how bacteria multiply and how to stop them from multiplying  Left his petri dish over the weekend and came back and found mold  Saw that around the mold the bacteria had died and so the mold (living organism) had killed the bacteria  That “something” turned out to be penicillin o Which changed the course of WW2 o Most widely used against so many bacterial diseases o Manufactured on very large scale A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid  1953, (Watson and Crick?)  Famous scientific paper published  “It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material” The Double Helix  By James Watson  Describes the scientific discovery of the structure of DNA but also sociological aspects around it o There was a race to discover the science behind it DNA  Two long strands of polymers twisted together giving the appearance of a spiral staircase  Each of those strands is made up of individual units, that we call nucleotides  A nucleotide is composed of a sugar molecule which is attached to a phosphate group, and also to what we call a base o There are four different bases that are used in the body to manufacture DNA  Guanine, adenine, cytosine, thymine  This staircase-like structure is always coupled so that the two strands are joined together in such a way that guanine is always attracted to cytosine, and adenine to thymine  This structure is the key to life  A specific sequence of nucleotides is called a gene Genes  Genes give instructions for generation or the synthesis of proteins in the body o Everything in life depends on proteins  Enzymes are proteins o Biological catalysts without which the chemical reactions that constitute life could not occur  These strands of DNA are compressed intro microscopic structures we call chromosomes o When you unravel these chromosomes you can see the structure of DNA o One particular segment of DNA is what constitutes a gene  There is an argument as to how many genes we have in our DNA o The estimates are 20,000-25,000  These genes code for different kinds of proteins  What about the rest of the DNA molecule that has not yet been identified as being part of genes? o “Junk DNA”  Genes affect everything in life o Our total appearance  DNA = the blueprint of life Synthesis of Proteins  DNA produces proteins by means of an intermediateRNA o DNA codes for RNA, which in turn tells the cells how to produce proteins  Take two strands of DNA o Each of those strands then can serve as a template to build the RNA molecule o RNA is also a sequence of nucleotides of bases which will pair with the original DNA strand o When the RNA then dissociates itself from the DNA, it has encoded in it the set of instructions to build proteins  DNA triggers the production of RNA, and RNA is what causes proteins to be synthesized Gene Synthesis  Can we make these genes?  Yes: just string together nucleotides and then you can make a gene  The first time it was done was in the McGill Chemistry department by Kelvin Ogilvie o Invention of the Gene Machine  The idea would be to synthesize a gene and insert it into a molecule of DNA, and insert that DNA into a living organism o That living organism will carry out the instructions that are encoded in that DNA  One of the first technologies to make use of this was insulin o Insulin is the hormone cranked out by the pancreas and is the gatekeeper of glucose (tells the cells when to absorb glucose)  Today it is possible to produce human growth hormone in the lab because the gene that codes for it has been isolated and identified  Similarly we can use this idea in animals o In the case of milk producing cattle, there is a hormone called bovine growth hormone (bovine somatotropin) which induces milk formation o Controversial because it stresses cows and puts them at risk to infections such as mastitis o Not used in Canada because we have a different milk producing system (we have a milk quota)  In cheese, the important enzyme is chymosin (part of rennet) which used to be found in calves’ stomachs, but is now genetically engineered o First introduced in 1990 (1 product of genetic engineering in our food supply) o Most of the cheese today is a product of genetic engineering GMOs  People worry about genetically modified organisms  The truth is almost everything that we eat is genetically modified  Grapefruit is a product of genetic engineering o It is a fruit that has been cross-bred over the years from lemons and oranges  Triticale (hybrid of wheat and rye)  It is possible to change the structure of DNA in a seed by exposing it to radiation o Used radiation as a trial to see what would develop o It does not make it radioactive  One of the most interesting ways of using genetic modification is to grow crops that are resistant to herbicides  Glyphosate is a classic weed killer, but if you spray it on a field it will kill everything o It is less toxic than aspirin, caffeine or salt o Trade name is RoundUp  Canola is now “Roundup” resistant o It requires less tillage (less ploughing) o Less fuel used o Less herbicide use  In a survey, 43% of Americans said that only genetically modified tomatoes have genes  33% of Americans said that eating genetically modified fruit would change their own genes  The first product of genetically modified fruit was the tomato o Hope for in the winter it would deliver the flavor that you get during regular season o Idea was to implant a gene into the tomato that would inhibit polygalacturonase (enzyme that leads to rapid spoiling of the tomato) o It failed, and delivered an anti-GMO movement  The biggest problem is that people do not see directly the benefits of genetic modification  People believe that there are arctic flounder genes in tomatoes o Rooted in some truth o Arctic flounders don’t freeze, so scientists implanted their genes into the tomatoes to prevent the tomatoes from freezing o Not marketed  Precautionary principle: even if there is a smidgeon of doubt, it is not worth pursuing that technology o They want proof of no harm  Goal that science cannot meet o With a zero risk mentality we would have to reject all grain crops because they are commonly contaminated with fungi, rodent droppings and insect parts o So you have limits of what is acceptable based on the technology that is available to us  Canadian Food Inspection Agency measures the risk vs. benefit o With the introduction of any new food, they test:  Biochemical, toxicological, nutritional, allergenicity data  Estimate of dietary exposure  Anticipated pattern of use  Potential harm to non-target species  Potential to spread genetic material to other species  Potential of plant to become a weed  Impact on biodiversity Allergenicity Testing  Source of transferred gene  Amino acid sequence  Molecular weight  Effect of pH and gastric juices  Traditional cross-breeding is also at risk o Celery has been cross-bred to have stronger stalks  Brazil nuts are very rich in methionine, but soya beans have low concentrations o Take the gene from brazil nuts that codes for methionine synthesis and put it into the soya crop o Took genetically modified soya bean and tested it for allergies o Someone who was allergic to brazil nuts became allergic to soya o The GM’d soya bean was never marketed  It is also possible to reduce allergenicity using GMOs o People are working on peanut allergies Environmental Concerns  We have the ability to implant a gene into corn that codes for the production of a pesticide so that corn has a natural protection (Bacillus Thuringensis) o What happens if pollen from this corn goes into the environment and kills insects that you don’t want to harm?  It was extensively studied, and it turned out that the monarch butterfly was not susceptible  Will the insects develop resistance? o Yes; no pesticide kills 100% of the bugs  Possibility of super-weeds o Not all of the weeds are going to be killed, so the weeds that survived are now resistant to the herbicide and they have the chance of multiplying  This is something that was predicted because any time that you introduce something, eventually resistance does develop Bt Protein  Fusarium Ear Rot o Fungal attack on corn o Produces Fumonisins (carcinogen to humans) o By using the Bt technology you’re reducing the exposure to mycotoxins  Colorado Potato Beetle  Yield goes up and pesticide use goes down  In Florida Bt corn would increase production by 22 million pounds/year and reduce insecticide use by 79%  In Oregon and Washington could save 10 million lbs of raspberries/year from virus damage and reduce fumigant use by 370,000 lbs/year GMO’d Rice  One of the biggest problems in the world is Vitamin A deficiency  This is because of a diet that is mostly rice o Rice does not contain beta-carotene  It is possible to implant the gene into rice that codes for the production of beta-carotene from corn or marigold plantsGolden rice  A bowl of ~100-150g cooked golden rice can provide about 60% of the recommended nutrient intake of vitamin a for 6-8 year old children  It is possible to insert a gene into the rice to make it absorb more iron Other GMO foods  Protato: taking a gene from amaranth and inserting it into a potato so it produces more protein  Inserting genes from cruciferous foods into potatoes to enhance the value of the potato  Insert a gene to make crops more adaptable to soil conditions  Implant a gene into soya bean to increase production of oil  Produce an oil from soya beans that is lower in linolenic acid (polyunsaturated fats)  Implanting gene into flax seed to code for production Omega-3 fats  Modified papaya so it is less susceptible to papaya ring spot virus  Implant a gene into tomatoes that codes for the production of folates  Implant a gene into apples to prevent the browning  Pharming: drugs can be produced by implanting a gene into a crop that codes for the production of drugs o GMO’d rice Genetically Modified Animals  Insert a gene into the genome of a goat so it will produce in its milk TPA, which is used to bust blood clots in the body Is it safe?  You can never say something in 100% safe with no doubt  81 research projects financed the European Union over 15 years have found that the risks associated with the GM crops are the same as conventional plant breeding  But occasionally you will get a study that causes fear o Study in France that showed early death in rats that were fed GM corn Issue of Labeling  People say that if you are going to GM my food, then you should at least label it  Labeling requirements should be based on the content of the food, not on the way it was produced  Labeling is already required for any GM food that is nutritionally or compositionally different from its traditional counterpart o If the canola oil was in any way different than “natural” canola oil then it would have to be labeled, but there is no chemical test that can differentiate the two March 18 : Garbage  We throw out a tremendous amount of garbage every day o It ends up everywhere o Landfills, streets, in nature, in animals  Garbage men are at risk o Garbage collectors are 3x more likely to be killed on the job than police officers or firemen  Most of the stuff that gets put in the garbage is benign, but that doesn’t mean we are disposing of it the proper way  There is a cosmetic problem  We throw out about 4lbs garbage/person/day in North America  Most of it is paper, but there is yard wastes, plastics, metals, glass, etc. Hydrofluoric Acid  Used for etching glass, cleaning bricks  Someone threw out a partially empty glass and it injured/killed the garbage men  When the fluoride ion reacts with calcium, it makes calcium fluoride  The calcium that you have in the body, which is necessary for the function of the nervous system and the heart, gets engaged with the fluoride  The treatment is to use a calcium gluconate gel  The moral of the story: nothing like that should never be put in the garbage Where does the garbage go?  27% is properly disposed of (recycled or composted)  8% is incinerated  66% is buried in a landfill  Hazardous waste is disposed of in a special way o Bioremediation: the process by which living organisms act to degrade or transform hazardous organic contaminants  Microbes break down organic matter into simple substances Composting  Recycle whatever bacteria can break down, then use that as fertilizer to grow more food, then compost the waste again  Pile your organic matter and let it sit  There are natural bacteria that are present  Also can be harnessed to use some as energy (produces heat)  Many municipalities have a compost collection once a week  Not everything is compostable o Most of foodstuffs can be composted o Not plastic materials Tires  20 million tires are discarded annually in Canada  75% are recycled o Roof shingles, soundproofing wall panels, running tracks, garbage cans, football fields  Charles Goodyear o American inventor who made the kind of rubber that we use today o Rubber comes from a tree o He found that if you took natural rubber and heated it up with sulfur, you have vulcanized rubber o If you burn rubber, the sulfur creates a problem  Hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid o If they are burned, they should be burned in a controlled fashion o Rubber can be burned for fuel Mobro (1987)  The first time that we really got sensitized to the problem of garbage  Mobro was a giant barge that was loaded with 3000 tons of New York trash  Idea was to transport it for an experimental purpose (converted into usable biogas)  There was a rumor that started that the barge contained medical waste  This barge became the symbol for over-generation of garbage  The landfill where this came from was right across from NYC o Had 17,000 tons of refuse daily o Also where all the waste from the Twin Towers went Landfills  There is a myth that we are running out of landfill space  There is lots of land to use  If garbage is generated at the current rate for another 1000 years, it will still fit in a hole 100 yards deep and 35 miles on each side  In the future we will have more landfills, but they will be further, which means that we will be using more energy to transport garbage o Might means the cost of garbage collection increases  We have the technology today to create very safe landfills  Landfills are a very safe way of disposing garbage, if you’re disposing stuff that should be in the landfill (not recycled)  Today’s landfills are a high-tech operation that have layers to make sure nothing leaks out  Once it is full it is covered over and turned into park land  Landfills can be very good things as long as what you’re putting in there cannot be recycled or composted  Manila, Philippines o Instead of using landfills, they would just pile the garbage o Heavy rains caused a garbage dump about 3x the size of a football field to collapse and cause a “garbage slide”  Bill Rathje o World’s first “garbalogist” o His research was to find out what goes on in a landfill  Fast food packaging=0.25%  Disposable Diapers=0.8%  Plastics=10%  Paper=50%  What shouldn’t be put into garbage o Nail polish bottles o Batteries  These gigantic landfills have a lot of material that doesn’t decompose because there isn’t enough oxygen beneath the surface  If it is done properly so that decomposition occurs, then these landfills can be a great source of biogas, methane, that is then used as a fuel  These days, landfills are designed with air vents at the bottom so that everything can be decomposed  Landfills as a potential source of energy Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  Napolean was the first to make proper use of garbage o He had an edict to make men urinate on nitre beds (compost heaps) o When the biodegradable material reacted with the ammonia, it forms nitrates, and nitrates were needed to make gun powder  When you recycle, you have to separate materials  Recycling can save energy and money  But it doesn’t work everywhere all the time o Depends on what kind of garbage you’re dealing with o Depends on whether recycling facilities are nearby o Depends on how much you’re paying to transport your garbage  In France they have a very elaborate system of recycling and people have learned that you have to separate your material  We have the “blue box” o All of the recycled materials go into the blue box, and someone does the separating  In New York, recycling loses money o It would be cheaper to transport and bury it in a landfill o There is a real problem with sorting, which jacks up the price because you have to hire labour to sort o New York spends 200$ more for a ton of recycled garbage than to bury it in a landfill  Philadelphia took plastic out of the recycling program because they couldn’t collect enough plastic to pay for the transportation Sorting Problem  The plastic that is most recyclable and pays in terms of recycling is polyethyleneglycol terephalate (PET) o Can be recycled without much problem  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can also be recycled, but you cannot recycle it with PET o You need a different technology  If you have one PVC bottle in PET it can ruin the whole recycling process o It will release chlorine and that destroys the PET  Most of the sorting is done manually  Plastic absorbs, so you can’t just reuse the bottles  Polyester can be depolymerized and then repolymerized o Break down the plastic into its original components and link them up again to make a new polymer o This process has been brought to a point where it’s commercially viable  PET is #1 in the recycling pictures o The number on the logo is to identify what the plastic is o HDPE (high density polyethylene)=#2 o PVC=#3 o LDPE(low density)=#4 o PP (polypropylene)=#5 o PS (polystyrene)=#6 o Other=#7 (such as BPA) Absorption Problem  Plastics absorb some of whatever has been stored in them  This creates an environmental problem  Plastic waste accumulates in the Pacific Ocean  Those discarded bottles could have had all sorts of substances in them, which is now being released into the ocean Breakdown Problem  Recycled plastics break down  When you recycle, when you make a new plastic from an old plastic, it’s never quite as strong as before  Eventually plastics will not be able to be recycled  When you buy garbage bags that say “degradable”, that is very dependent on the conditions o When they get buried in a landfill, they do not degrade because there is not enough air o And it is not the whole bag that is degradable, it is the layers of starch Replace?  Paper bag instead of plastic bag – is it a good replacement? o No  It requires 5x as much energy  Occupies ten times more space in a landfill  Produces ten times more air emissions o The answer is to use neither: use a reusable bag o Plastic bags are often recyclable  Made of polyethylene  But people don’t recycle them and they end up in the environment  Paper cup instead of styrofoam cup o Paper cup production turns out to be worse  More: petroleum, steam, electricity, water, air emission  35x more processing chemicals  Not recyclable o Use a ceramic/reusable coffee cup  McDonalds packaging and using polystyrene containers o The old polystyrene container actually used 30% less energy than paperboard and resulted in 46% less air pollution and 42% less water pollution  Box vs. bottle o Filling a box requires half the energy o Transport of empty bottles requires 15 times as many trucks o Filled boxes can be transported with 35% less energy  Cotton diapers instead of disposables o Requires 4x as much water o 2x as much energy/year o Produces 2x more air pollution o Produces 7x as much water pollution o Both have benefits and downsides o But there is a lot more contamination in daycares if you use cotton diapers over disposable diapers o But there is a higher scrotal temperature in babies who use disposable diapers Paper  75,000 trees are cut for a Sunday New York Times  Everyday, Americans buy 62 million newspapers and throw out 44 million o That’s the equivalent of dumping 500,000 trees into a landfill every week  Trees can be recycled  These days, for every tree that is harvested 2 trees are planted  Clear cutting: cut trees in a forest without replanting  North America has replanting laws  Paper can be recycled, but it is not an easy process o You have dyes, staples o Needs lots of energy o The technology is available, but the economics are not always favorable  In some cases, it may be better to incinerate the paper Computers  Computers have actually resulted in more paper being used  Computers account for about 5% of energy use in North America which means millions of tons of carbon dioxide, thousands of tons of nitrogen and sulfur oxides  Computers also generate garbage o Electronic garbage o Garbage in the computer from people eating around them  2grams of gunk  15% corn flakes  15% candy  7% noodles o When you dispose of the computers  The screen has lead, and the plastic has chemicals  Most of the electronic waste gets shipped to China  In Europe it is now illegal to sell any kind of electronic equipment without a certificate which says that you can take it back Every minute in North America, 1500 water bottles are being opened, and most of them are not being recycled th March 20 : The Car Gasoline  In the 1930’s: 0.21$/gallon – 0.05$/liter  In the USA: 391,000,000 gal/day = 1.5 billion liters/day burned in cars Cars  First car in 1769 o A steam driven car was produced in France by Nicholas Cugnot  First internal combustion car o Built in 1807 by Isaac de Rivaz in Switzerland  It was Siegfried Marcus in 1831 made the first fully propelled car  1877 steam engine car (wood burning)  Early 1900’s (1904): Stanley Steamer  It was the assembly line idea that changed the whole world o Individual parts were put together in an assembly line o Developed by Henry Ford  By 1908 Ford had built 15 million cars in 19 years o Model-T had 20 hP  There were lots of problems o Directing traffic/pedestrians o Snow o Slower than horses o No paved roads o Tires needed changing  “Reinventing the wheel” – an airless Michelin o Tweel o Never gets a flat  Price of a Model-T in 1909 was $1850  Price of a Model-T in 1920 was $300  Popular car in Europe was the Citroen 2CV  Tucker o Had a headlight that roamed Energy  Nation’s energy supply in 2002: o Fossil fuels=85%, Nuclear=8%, Renewable energy=6%  The richest nations use 80% of the world’s energy production and have only 20% of the population  A world of 10 billion people consuming energy at the current US level would raise world energy demand 10x  Energy is o 7-10% of our cost of living (cheap) o 7% of world trade o 25% of US trade deficit  Energy in our lives: transportation, heating/cooling, electricity…  World energy use in 2000: 13 TW  50 terrawatts will be required for the 10 billion people by 2100 at the US standard of living  A terawatt is 1 billion kilowatts o The average light bulb uses 60 killowatts  Oil and gas produce 1000 TW-year  Coal produces 5000 TW-year  Oil shale produces 30,000 TW-year  Renewable energy potential o Sunlight could produce 26,000 TW-year o Wind energy could produce 2,000 TW-year Oil  In the 1850’s oil was discovered and started to be processed  Petrolia, Ontario (1854)  Titusville, Pennsylvania (1859)  Oil is easy to find in Middle East and Russia  Gas found above oil which could be used for energy, but some places, like in Nigeria, don’t have the technology to trap the gas fast enough so they burn it  T. Sterry Hunt o McGill Professor o Known for telling the US how to colour their currency green o Along with J. Dawson, was responsible for the 1 International Geological Congress o Able to sort out where oil might likely be found  The first big oil rig was discovered in Beaumont, Texas, in 1901 o Spindletop  The first pioneer was Howard Hughes Sr.  A lot of this takes place in Middle East o United Arab Emirates o Dubai  Saddam Hussein set fire to oil rigs in Kuwait  Oil being found in Mongolia  Top oil exporters: o Saudi Arabia, Russia, Norway  Top oil consumers: o USA, Japan, China, Canada (9 ) th  Top oil producers: th o Russia, Saudi Arabia, USA, Canada (14 ) o The top exporter to the US is Canada  LNG: liquefied natural gas Fracking  Extracting of natural gas found beneath rock  Fracking and oil in North Dakota  Fracking in New York state and Pennsylvania Oil Spills  In 1989, 11 million gallons were spilled off the coast of Alaska o Exxon Valdez oil spill o Reparations were about 20 billion dollars  In 2008, the US Supreme Court heard a punitive damage case for the Exxon Valdez spill o 2.5 billion dollars o Amount was reduced to 500 million Petroleum  CH – Methane (natural gas) 4  If you add a carbon to that it becomes ethane  Add another carbon and it becomes propane  By the 4 carbon it’s butane  Isobutane: an isomer of butane  Use: Industry, residential, transportation o 30 years ago, they were used 1/3 equally o Now transportation is over half, industry just less than half  Because of “high” gas prices, people are using cooking oil to run their cars Diesel  Invented by Rudolph Diesel who also invented the diesel engine March 25 : Cars – Petroleum Carbon Cycle  CO 2atmosphere)PhotosynthesisC (plants/animals)degradationCO 2  About 0.1% does not get degraded o What goes into plastics o Eventually all of the plastics will be oxidized o 7-10% of the petroleum that is non-degraded go into plastics Oxidation  Stoichiometry: From Greek word “part” o Atoms recombining with one another in an effective and complete fashion  2H 2 O 22H 0 +2Δ (change in heat)  The Universe is composed of Hydrogen  Hydrogen is lighter than air and used to make most of lighter than air ships o Hindenburg ended use of Hydrogen  Combustion: fuel + oxygen source  CO + 2 0 +2Δ  So much difficulty in getting a blended gasoline that will burn effectively because every molecule requires a slightly different ratio of oxygen to the hydrocarbon Octane Rating  Heptane is a 7-carbon molecule is given an arbitrary value of “0” o It burns, but it doesn’t do so particularly well  Heptane ignites spontaneously when it’s compressed o It has 8 carbons, but placed in a particular arrangement that allows it to deliver more heat and to be more efficiently combusted in the engine  Antiknock is given a value out of “100” o Higher antiknock numbers are more efficient at burning  Regular gas has a value of 87 o It contains heptane, antiknock and a bunch of other molecules that, at the end, gives it a collected value of “87” Additives  Many sorts of additives are involved in the combustion process of cars  Up to about 30 years ago, Pb (CH2CH3)4, called tetraethyl lead, was added to gasoline in order to aid in the combustion process (made the engine run better) o Pb (CH2CH3)4 + O2PbO2 o PbO2, also called lead oxide, is a white powder, and it would get stuck in the engine so they had to come up with a solution o It was found that by adding Br-CH2-CH2-Br to the mix, it would react with PbO2 to form PbBr2 (lead bromide) which is volatile enough to get automatically removed from the engine  It’s been found by the writers of the book “Freakonomics” that violent crimes have reduced in North America faster than in England o The argument for this is that the removal of lead from gasoline in North America (30 years ago) compared to England and Australia, which removed it only very recently, means people under 30 in the North America didn’t grow up with the presence of high lead content in air compared to today o Lead contributes to bizarre behaviour in individuals, meaning it could be linked violent crimes o The validity of this would be proven if the amount of violent crimes would decrease in England and Australia in the next 20-30 years or so  Dr. Clair C. Patterson, from Cal Tech, was the person to really notify the authorities of the danger of lead in gasoline o He determined the concentration of lead in the earth’s surface and that it was widespread in the environment o He was the person who determined the rough age of the earth at 4.6 billion years by isotopic measurements o He determined that the major sources of lead in the environment were:  Pipes (now replaced by PVC pipes)  Solder in cans (no longer used)  Leaded gasoline (been removed)  Lead paint is still present in many old homes in Montreal if the place hasn’t been repainted since  MTBE is another additive that has also been taken out of gas now o It stands for Methyl tert-butyl ether and is a hydrocarbon with an oxygen added to the molecule, which contributes to a more favourable burning arrangement for gasoline during combustion o MTBE was mandated in 1990 during the Clean Air Act (oxygen mandate), when they determined that reformulated gasoline had to contain 2% oxygen by weight, which would make the gasoline burn more efficiently o 85% of the 2% required oxygen used to be covered by MTBE for a while o MTBE was found to leak into ground water and would deliver and unpleasant odours at 600 ppb, so it was taken out of the market Coal Who U.S. Russia China India Others Has coal 27% 17% 13% 10% 33% Uses now (M 1094 251 1531 431 2100 tons) Will use by 1505 288 3242 736 2500 2025  The U.S. is the country with the most coal  Russia doesn’t use as much coal as the U.S. because it has an extensive amount of oil  The Prof showed a picture of a train that is 2.5 km long (100 cars), that is filled with coal and that will supply one day’s worth of energy for a large power plant  All of the coal-burning pollution is directly linked to the issue that if new ways of getting energy aren’t found, the U.S. will keep using coal and will have to increase it’s usage in the long-run as well  If coal-burning would be cleaned up as a process, it would be great because it’s a very dirty process  China will need more energy than ever before because they are producing more cars than there are in the U.S., which is a big part of the economy over there  China has very polluted air, especially close to coal mines o There are still lots of bicycles over there, but cars are on the rise, therefore so is the pollution  In the Gobi desert, there is no wood, so they use dung as a source of energy Converting  Converting crude oil to diesel is quite inexpensive  Converting coal to diesel costs about 4x more than doing it from crude oil (very difficult to do as well)  Converting biomass to diesel is very expensive and only gives a very small amount in return (so not efficient) Gasification of Oil  This is a process that has been known about for a very long time H2O  CoalC + O2CO2H2 + CO Catalyst  With the presence of water and the right metal catalyst, CO2 can be transformed into hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide, which is called syngas (“synthetic gas”) which, under the right conditions, can be converted to CH4 (methane) and other hydrocarbons o This reaction is called the Fischer-Tropsch reaction  The efficiency of this reaction all boils down to having the right catalyst  Catalysts make reactions go faster (makes thing more efficient)  This is a way to convert coal to hydrocarbons, but it isn’t that efficient because of the lack of a good catalyst for this reaction Gasohol  This is another alternative and is currently present in various places in the world  Gasohol is composed of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline  In brazil, where they produce a lot of plant material, alcohol (ethanol) from corn is used for this  Some corn crops are solely used for the production of ethanol in various places Lubricating Oil  Instead of having to choose from SAE 10 or 30 or SAE 10W or 30W depending on the time of the year, multigrade SAE 10W-30 is commonly used all year round  The higher numbers indicate more viscous oils  More viscous oils are used in the summer and less viscous oils are used in the winter  The “W” means it resists evaporation  Additives are also added to lubricating oils, such as: o Rush inhibitors  Also known as surface inhibitors, such as paint, which prevent oxidation  Nowadays, some paints on cars will protect oxidation from taking place for many decades because it stays on the surface very well, which didn’t used to be the case back in the day o Oxidation inhibitors o Detergents Greases  In greases you can find: o Oil and soap: keeps particles in suspension o Silicones: reduce frothing (stops formation of bubbles) o MoS :s2lid material that prevents contact between metal surfaces and water  When the automobile industry crashed some years ago it wasn’t just the automobile makers that lost their jobs, but also the people that have businesses specialized in producing these additives and what goes in them Engine Cooling  The radiator pumps water mixed with other materials in order to keep the engine cool o If you see water vapour coming out of the radiator, don’t touch it because water is boiling inside and this means that it’s very hot Antifreeze  Antifreeze is made from ethylene glycol, which is a sweet tasting substance, but it’s very toxic to animals  In the mix, bonds are formed by hydrogen bonding and the molecules arrange themselves in a hexagonal manner  Hydrogen bonding isn’t really a bond, but rather an association  Ethylene glycol is this molecule HO-CH2-CH2-OH  When it gets added to water, it gets between the water molecules and prevents them from associating with one another, meaning water won’t freeze as easily as it normally would  Even in antifreeze, there are additives o Polystyrene beads is an additive in antifreeze  It fills up empty spaces and holes that may form on surfaces and prevents water from coming through Windshield Washer Fluid  It’s basically methanol, which gets into the atmosphere as it evaporates  Keeps water from freezing for the same reason as ethylene glycol does  Methanol is also used in anti-lock, which is a product that helps unfreeze manual car locks Battery  Provides the electrical energy to power the car  The first ideas of electric cars were to have big batteries that would provide enough electricity to run the car, but the issue here was to have to plug the batteries  Car lights are inexpensive o They contain coils inside of them that can literally burn out, breaking the circuit o Headlights used to be calcium carbide converted to acetylene, which would slowly burn giving off light  The cost to replace a headlight: ~17$ (varies depending on the car) Hydrocarbons and Pollution  Burning of hydrocarbons, such as in gasoline, causes pollution  Our lungs get darker just by breathing normal air, even without smoking  There is substantially less winter smog in Montreal compared to the amount there used to be 30-40 years ago  In China, however, they are on the rise due to the increasing air pollution  Pollutants from cars: o VOCvolatile organic compounds, which get into the atmosphere from all kinds of sources, but especially from car pollution o NOxnitrogen oxides, which are gasoline-burning products, because nitrogen is part of the mixture and at high temperatures, the nitrogen can combine o COcarbon monoxide, which are partial oxidation products  Catalytic converters help reduce greatly the amount of car pollution o They contain metal catalysts on which extra reactions can take place from air passing through the exhaust o Metals like palladium and platinum are present in the converters, which is why they can be valuable for recycling  Reduction catalysts do reduction reactions, turning nitrogen oxides into harmless gases (air): o 2 NON2 + O2 o 2 NO2N2 + 2 O2  Oxidation catalysts do oxidation reactions, turning partial oxidation products into fully oxidize products o 2 CO + O22 CO2  Because the metals in there are still able to do the reactions even if the car’s engine isn’t working anymore, they can be recycled for other catalysts to use  Other metals can also be recycled in the same fashion from cellphones, laptops Other Methods to Propel Cars  Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)  natural gas compressed under high pressures (though its highly toxic)  Electricity  stored in batteries  Hydrogen  special type of gas, but not so safe  Liquefied Natural Gas  very cold natural gas that has been compressed into a liquid  Liquids (gasoline and diesel fuels)  made from coal  Biodiesel  diesel fuel that’s been made from plant oil or animal fat  Alcohols  like ethanol and methanol Practical Alternatives  Natural gas  Steam  Electricity o EV1 car  137hp  130km/h top speed  Range of about 100 miles  Need a plug to power-up the car, which can be an issue when doing long distance o Golf Carts  Classic form of electrical vehicle o Smart Cars o ZENN cars (Zero Emissions No Noise)  Only sold in US and BC  40 km/h  60 km/charge  ~12,000$  Gives off 6 tons less CO in a year 2  ~106 km/L of gas (equivalence), so about ~250 mpg efficiency o Electric cars have to be plugged between each uses, though Fuel Cells/Hydrogen  The stored hydrogen goes to the fuel cell, where its broken down to generate electricity for the electric motor  Typically, in a combustion engine, gasoline is compressed and ignited to generate power, which is about 30% efficient (70% of the energy is lost)  In fuel-cell cars, the fuel cell’s efficiency goes up to 55%, which is much more than the combustion engine  In the fuel-cell, hydrogen is converted into a proton and an electron o The electron will go through an electric circuit to generate the electricity, while the proton goes through a proton-exchange- membrane before coming together with oxygen (from air) and the electron that came out of the circuit to form H2O (for the animation seen in class, look at 66:00 of the recording)  The BMW 750 HL is an example: o Range of 300km o Quite powerful o Refueling is an issue because you can’t get hydrogen at gas stations everywhere Hybrid Electrical Vehicles  They use gasoline and electricity to run  If you’re just cruising, it uses electricity and if you have to accelerate, it uses gasoline  The Honda Insight is one of them, it does 70 mpg on the highway and braking charges the battery (as seen in a previous lecture)  The Toyota Prius is also an HEV Car Safety – Air Bags  It had been thought for a long time that a process like this should be installed to cars, but they didn’t know how to build one that would immediately deliver enough gas that would fill up a balloon to protect us efficiently during an accident  Nowadays, cars have them everywhere inside  2 NaN3  2 Na + 3 N2 o NaN3 is called “sodium azide”  When it goes off, it gives you elemental sodium and nitrogen, which creates air inside the bag o This reaction only takes place during significant impact, and the reaction goes off very quickly producing nitrogen gas very fast o However, a product from this reaction is also elemental sodium (looks like gray butter), which it highly toxic and highly reactive o Extra steps had to be invented to take away the danger brought by the presence of elemental sodium also being produced o When elemental sodium is put into water, it goes through a reaction that generates hydrogen, which catches fire spontaneously:  Na + 2 H2O  NaOH + H2  NaOH is “lye” which is what is found in the product “Draino”  It’s toxic to us o The way around this whole mess is that the sodium produced can be combined with KNO3 (potassium nitrate) to create Na2O and K2O, sodium oxides, which are harmless (N2 also) o To get rid of Na2O and K2O, all you have to do is add SiO2 (basically sand), which reacts together to form silicate glass March 27 : Insects Background  There are about 200 million insects for each person on Earth  They are the largest class of invertebrates  Insects are invertebrate animals of the class insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely distributed taxon within the phylum arthropoda  Insects comprise the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over 800,000 species described – more than all other animal groups combined  There are issues that arise with insects  Mosquitos are responsible for 250 million cases of malaria every year o Close to 1 million die o Mostly happens in tropical, underdeveloped regions  Not only malaria that is transmitted by mosquitos and not always by biting o Sometimes they can carry viruses and bacteria on their bodies Cockroaches  Most people are reviled by bugs, especially cockroaches  The reason that people find them in their home is because they are scavengers and they’ll go after whatever food is leftover  The Gazette printed a story they found in an Israel newspaper o A woman found a cockroach in her house and shooed it into the toilet where she sprayed insecticide and closed the lid o Her husband came home and went to the bathroom where he lit a cigarette and an explosion happened o The story turned out to be an urban legend, but it could and has happened  There are real unusual stories about cockroaches o One guy was so afraid of them he used a shotgun to kill them Crickets  Some insects seem to be friendly, like Jiminy Cricket (who is anatomically incorrect)  Crickets are useful  There are cricket farms  Crickets are raised in large numbers by the Malayans because they can be used as bait  When you raise crickets there is lots of waste because crickets defecate  Their fecal matter is also collected because it also has commercial appeal o The cricket waste is an excellent fertilizer  A cricket farm started to sell the fertilizer under the name KK-432 o It didn’t sell very well because people interpreted the name as “too scientific” and something synthetic o It was revealed what the KK really stood for: Kricket Krap  It started to sell better Eating  You can even incorporate crickets into candy o Actually not crickets but larvae of various insects  There are chefs that specialize in producing food that is made from insects Protection  Insects don’t want to be eaten so they try to prevent being eaten in some very chemically interesting ways  Monarch Butterfly o In its larval stage it is ravenous in terms of eating leaves o When it eats, it eats mostly milkweed (a plant)  Plants produce a whole array of compounds o Milkweed produces a family of compounds called cardenolides o When the larvae eats the plant, it will concentrate the cardenolides which remain when it turns into a butterfly o This butterfly tried to prevent being eaten with the cardenolides which are toxic to predators o The blue jay will not eat the monarch butterfly if it has a high enough concentration of cardenolides, which makes it very bitter and untasty  The Viceroy Butterfly does not have any cardenolides but it has evolved to look like the monarch butterfly o This is a natural evolution  Crickets o Crickets protect themselves in various ways including camouflage o Some species have specific dining habits of eating a type of leaf that has 2 compound, calactin and calotropin o These make the cricket unpalatable to predators  Bombardier Beetles o Thomas Eisner and Jerrold Meinwald were the ones who discovered the fascinating chemistry of the Bombardier Beetle o This beetle stores a chemical called hydroquinone o When it feels threatened it mixes the hydroquinone with hydrogen peroxide and an enzyme  An enzyme is a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction o When they combine, it changes into quinone (toxic) and water o This is a very exothermic reaction; a lot of heat is produced o So much heat is produced that the water boils and produces steam o The steam propels the quinone out of the beetle o In the US, creationists use this beetle to try to prove that evolution could not have happened  Bomby the Bombardier Beetle  This beetle could not have evolved because its protective mechanism is not active until the chemicals in the 2 different chambers are mixed together  So how could evolution have occurred for those 2 chambers to produce a chemical without knowing that only when those chemicals come together is there protection (i.e. God knew)  Cantheride Beetle (“Spanish fly”) o So called because it has a compound called cantharadin in it o It is a compound that forms from the food that it eats o It is used by the beetles to protect their eggs o When the beetles lays an egg, it covers it with cantharadin o It is very effective protection because it is so toxic; the lethal dose for humans is a few mg o The precursor of cantharadin is farnesol which is found in numerous plants o The most famous story involving this beetle revolves around Casanova who supposedly used this beetle as an aphrodisiac o It is not an aphrodisiac but it is an irritant of the urogenital tract and can have some very unusual effects  Sustained priapism (a sustained erection) Bark Beetles  Bark Beetles eat the bark of trees which can have terrible consequences  They burrow through the bark, making little tunnels, eating and defecating  The tunnels destroy the tree’s ability to transport water and the tree eventually dies  As the beetles dig through the bark of the tree, they produce “boring dust” which is basically their feces  They also use some of the chemicals from the bark of the tree for their own benefit  Beetles, like all insets, use pheromones to communicate  Using their attraction pheromone, we could try to lure the beetle intro traps  Black-Bellied Clerid o Uses aggregation pheromone of the Bark Beetle to track them down o Has learned to focus in on the beetles by recognizing the pheromone o This could be another way to get rid of bark beetles Silkworm Moth  Insects use pheromones to attract other insects, chemicals that stimulate mating behaviour  The first pheromone ever isolated was that of the silkworm moth by Adolph Butenandt in the 1950s  Silk is a fabric and a protein  Silk is made in the caterpillar stage of the silkworm moth o It is the cocoon that it weaves around itself for protection  There used to be kits that were sold to children to raise a silkworm  The chemical that the female uses to attract the male is called bombykol  The amount that is produced by one single moth is very little o It took 500,000 female moths to isolate 6.4 mg of bombykol  The male moth has many receptors on its antennae o It requires a very specific molecule for their receptor o Even a closely related compound will not work o Other stereoisomers of bombykol were much less active German Cockroach  Cockroaches mate only in the dark and so the female releases a compound that only the male can sense so the male can find her  It is so powerful that a male can sense 101g, up to 4km away  The active ingredient is Periplanone B  Scientists took 75,000 female cockroaches in order to yield enough chemicals to learn about it  During the cold war, agents of the CIA would put a tiny bit of cockroach sex attractant on the person they wanted to follow, and then used a jar of male cockroaches to deduce where the person was Gas Chromatography-Mass Spetroscopy  Gas chromatographers separate compounds  Mass spectrometers help identify the structure Gypsy Moth  Another devastating insect, when in its larval stage  They will eat anything they can get their teeth into  They can destroy a whole forest  The gypsy moth is a good example of how careful you have to be when you make any kind of change in the environment o They are not native to North America o They were imported from Asia in hopes of starting a silk business o They did not think that any moths would escape, but
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