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CHEM 181 (350)

Food II and the Food Crisis

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CHEM 181
Ariel Fenster

Fructose has a low glycemic index: doesn’t vary blood sugar as much Small amounts is okay, but today diet can include ~10% fructose Processed in the liver  too much = fats, glucose = glycogen which is regulated by insulin Inc fat in blood, too much fat in blood = heart disease Doesn’t trigger I’m full feeling Causes insulin ressitence = type 2 diabetes Advanced glycation end products, more than glucose Cohort study: High fructose drinks = inc risk of gout – uric aid crystallizes and accumulates in joints (usually linked to too much meat eating) 1 serving per day had a 74% higher risk, 2+ servings 240%, though diet drinks were not associated at all, out of 100 people having soda 2 will get gout Mechanism: Fructose  uric acid, glucose doesn’t follow this path Sucrose issue: splits to fructose and glucose = glycation Proteins amine end of amino acid + sugar’s aldehyde (reducing sugar) = Maillard reaction  Amadori product which can reduce further = Protein-sugar- protein =Advanced glycation end products – sagging skin Blood sugar decreases less and less quickly after consumption as we age  at 70 after 80 mines = 10mM sugar, 20 years old 6mM after 80 minutes, excess sugar has more opportunity to make AGEs Cataracts: 40% of people btw 55-64 have some opaque areas, 90% peeps 75-84 = sugar/siabetes cataracts – particulates/clumps of AGEs Clouded lens = diffused light through cataracts Operation = lens is removed (vibrations shreds) and lens is implanted to replace it. New lens is not very flexible so only some focal points can be seen Proteins in the eyes are water soluble/clear, prevent the aggregation of other proteins and when they fail, cataracts are produced Fats: Stored energy Insulation Padding Triglyceride – glycerol + 3 fatty acids Saturated fat = no double bonds Eg. Tisteratin: 18 carbons each chain Lanolin/Vaseline – gel More solid Unsaturated fat = at least one double bond More liquid – more double bonds, kinks make them fit together less = less VdW forces Mono- only one double bond Poly- more than one double bond 9 cal/g Takes lots of energy to make fat from fructose, but fat can be stored very easily Coconut oil only saturated plant oil (80-90%)– no longer used in popcorn, though more coconuts produced due to hype of positive research Olive oil – little polyunsaturated, mostly monounsaturated  little more thick Saturated fats: Lard: PIGS, Mongolia – sheep fat used in cooking with noodles/rice Butter: mostly saturated, 20% water Margarine: 20-60% water Invented by Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew– promoted for army and lower classes WWII, margerine was popular as butter was for armed services or not at all – white lard + plant colouring agent = butter look alike Light margarine: 58% water blended to spread well, with gums for look and mouth feel Regular: liquid soya oil (partially hydrogenated), like 16% water, no gums Trans-fats: double bond can’t rotate, trans vs cis form Don’t get processed as well, lead to higher cholesterol Made during margarine manufacture: Double bond broken in inexpensive plant oil by adding H2 to saturate it until it’s spreadable. During this process with Pd or Pt catalyst, first carbon is hydrogenated and rotation occurs and first hydrogen rebinds to the other H  trans fat Don’t freeze! Saturated fats in foods: In a steak generally 20% by weight, 60% by calories Body cholesterol inc when you eat lots of saturated fats, makes 80% of cholesterol that is required to make hormones Decrease in fat = increased lifetime 1970-1995: Poultry and fish are being eaten more and more in NA Chicken inc 100% NA: meat eating -55% Fish +27% Poultry +91% -needs feeding supplement =
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