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CHEM 181 (350)

Sweeteners an Pesticides

7 Pages

Course Code
CHEM 181
Ariel Fenster

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Sweeteners: Sugar is associated with obesity Non-nutritive sweetners: US consumes most sweeteners, ½ of all world’s consumption France is most profitable country for McDonald’s after US, #1 private emplaoyers in France Saccharin (late 1800s): Professor Remsen synthesizes it for the first time His student Fahlbery patents it First used in Germany JF Queeny (1901): Brought saccharin to the US Marketed by his company Monsanto Saccharin: 300x than sugar w/ bitter after taste  other sweetners must be added 0 calories  popular in people w/ diabetes Increases bladder cancer in male rats if parents were also treated with saccharin Though on a human scale, they must have consumed 800 cans of saccharin soft drink per day to increase the risk Canada: bans saccharin as a food additive now only available as a table top sweetener at pharmacies as Hermeseta Delaney clause in Food, Drugs and Cosmetic Act: Any food that has shown to cause cancer in any situation must be banned Saccharin taken off carcinogen list as in 2000 it was shown that cancer mechanism in rats didn’t apply to humans Risk vs Hazard vs exposure: Hazard is always the same: potential risk Risk = hazard x exposure x susceptibility In risk evaluation, species is taken into account Canada: Saccharin is still banned US: ban lifted Sorbitol/oxylitol: sugar-alcohol X0.6 sweetness 1.3 calories  gives bulk and few calories as it is not easily broken down in the body In excess: explosive diarrhea Michael Sveda (1937): Cyclamate X30 sweetness 0 calories without saccharin’s bitterness, so it’s used with saccharin Banned as a food addative as in combination with saccharin it was found to increase risk of bladder cancer in mice Schlatter (1965): working on an ulcer drug when he tasted some product and found it to be sweet Aspertame: Aspartic acid + phenylalanine (amino acids  dipepetide) w/ methyl ester on the aspartic acid  converted to methanol in the body  leads to blindness x200 sweetness 4cals/g “equal” sweetener PKU suffering children can’t process phenylalanine and therefore can’t have aspertame Not heat stable Methanol produce from consumption dangerous? 80000-120000mg  death Much more methanol can be found in fruit drinks that in soft drinks sweetened with aspertame Aspertame adverse reaction Increased risk of disease due to aspartame  in diabetics with a lot of aspartame intake  no link found ADI: accepted daily intake: 50mg/kg NOAL: no observed adverse effect level: 4000mg/g Average daily intake: 5mg/kg Ramazzini study: 1800 rats fed various amounts of aspartame: increased aspartame consumption increased the incidence of lymphomas and leukemia in female rats The increase was not sue to the aspartame, but was related to the was the way the rats were raised Nutrasweet: Monsanto’s aspartame sweetener NHI-AARP: retrospective study: No links between cancer and 2 cans of soda per day Informa health care: 2007, funded by aspartame producer Showed no colrilation between aspartame and cancer Phenylethylamine: love chemical addicts is made by break down of aspartame Diet coke contains: acesulfame potassium X200 sweetness 0 cals Splenda: sucralose Sucrose with 3 OH replaced by Cl 0 cals x600 discovered by Professor Leslie Hough @ King’s college  Shashikant Phadnis tasted it -used in diet coke in US Stevia rebaudiana: herb X300 O cals Natural substance – not patented as it’s a friggin herb FDA approved in US as food additive, sweetener, dietary supplements, but first they had to prove it was safe Truvia: coca cola Pure via: pepsico 70% of processed food in Canada are derived from GMOs 3-4 crops are GMOs grown in Canada -Corn, canola, soya (in Canada), potatoes and wheat 100% chicken and 93% beef in US fast food was fed with corn exclusively = high fat levels in meant When asked if GMOs could modify your DNA YES: Canada 62% US 61% France 52% Tomatoes do not contain genes, but GMOs do YES: Canada 52% US 45% France 32% Benefits vs risks of GMOs 5 people a year killed by vending machines Wheat one a weed and over generations of selective breeding it became what we know today Cross-breeding of plants leads to hybrids like tangelo and triticale Vertical transfer: between closely related species Horizontal transfer: between species that are unrelated  Inserting gene of one species to another eg. Aequorea victoria jellyfish fluoreses  gene put in rats = glow in the dark rats 1 commercial of GM was in cheese Coagulative proteins using renit from calf stomach (to better digest milk) Chymosine is the active enzyme in renit Now chymosine can be isolated and inserted in a bacterial plasmid to mass produce chymosine = GMOs produce chymosine for cheese production 1 medical use of GM was in making insulin Benefits: - Output trait: food composition o Tomatoes rich in antioxidant lycopene o Oil high in monounsaturated fats o Flax is high in omega-3 o Broccoli high in sulforaphame  Not done for marketing reasons (labeling challenges – peeps won’t buy it) - input trait: up production of food o 10000 insects, 8000 fungy, 2000 weeds attack crops o Pesticides: toxic  Paris green = copper acetoarsenis, black leaf nicotine  = dangerous to not only insects but to humans  Black flag: nicotine replaced by DDT   3x food production, 10x pesticides used  effective against mosquitoes/malaria  Ceylan malaria irradicated  600 000 000 lives saved by DDT  Paul M won nobel prize fro medicine  Naples: 1943, DDT sprayed on people to stop typhus  In the short term toxicity is low  In the long term, environmental problems  Rachel Carson 1962 o First to promote environmental effects  DDT non-biodegradable/Fat soluble  =bioampli
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