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CHEM 181 (350)

Food Borne Illness

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CHEM 181
Ariel Fenster

Cancer: From zodiac Cancer: many cancers are hard growths with “feelers” that extend outward Treatments: Surgery (slash), chemo (poison), radiation (burn, last resort as salivary glands dry up) 5 year survival rates have increased from 50-66% Vaccines? 1. Peptide based 2. Cell based: for advanced prostate cancer, FDA approved “Provenge”  lengthened lives by several months by stimulating the immune system Death by cancer 2012 160000 lung, 52000 colon, 39500 breast, 28000 prostate 5 years ago cancer death fell slightly for the first time in a decade Cancer rate across the world varies greatly: Food intake is important in cancer cases Eg. India has much small rate of prostate cancer than North America Women lung cancer rate has been on the rise since the 60s, but cancer rate overall has been dropping/remaining constant Cigarettes for women were popularized in the 60s Men lung cancer/bronchial rate on the rise since the 40/50s, but in 85ish the rate starts to decrease In the military: cigarettes and chocolate were rationed as well to relieve tension and for trade Cancer rates are decreasing but very slowly (eg. 1-2%/year in colorectal cancer  take 70 years to half the number) Under 65, from 1973-1994: General cancer down 10%, melanoma up 10% (especially in Australia)  mole not uniform in colour and shape = not good, female lung cancer up 68% Under 65, from 1973-1994: mostly gone up, female lung up 250%, all up 17% 500 000 people/year die in the US of cancer 1500 per day, one per minute 1 every 10 minutes in Canada In North America: lung, breast, prostate and colon are most common Expectance of premature cancer causes: top – unbalanced diet, tobacco Risk factor prevalence in US: hypertension, obesity, high serum cholesterol, smoking Women’s Health initiative news: in Journal of the American Medical Association Reducing total fat intake has a small effect on breast cancer and no effect on risk on colorectal cancer, heart disease and stroke Doesn’t seem to make much difference to lower fat intake in post- menopausal women Mutagenic: agent/substance that brings about a permanent alteration of DNA Teratogenic: agent that causes the malformation of an embryo/fetus Eg. Thalidomide: in the first trimester creates foreshortening of limbs Useful for number of other disease, like leprosy Thalidomide victims (approx 10000 mostly in Europe) against the use of this for any disease A McGill graduate warned against the use of the drug in NA, so it wasn’t as widely used in NA Carcinogenic: agent that can cause cancer Process: an altered gene can be repaired, but when it doesn’t sometimes the cell division stays in the on position and the cell divides without cease = Eez a toomar! The tumor cells can invade other cells = angiogenesis: malignant cells secrete chemicals promoting new blood vessels to feed the tumor Metastasis: pieces break off into the blood stream = spread In prostate cancer: one cancerous cell can spread errwhere Out of 330 million peeps in NA, 10 million (12%) Coffee = thought to cause cancer, but had no effect on coffee consumption But was a badly done study Though does contain animal carcinogens (ish 10 mg): acrylamide, caffeic acid, benzene, styrene, formaldehyde, furfural More rodent carcinogens by weight in an average cup of coffee than there are potential carcinogenic synthetic pesticides residues in the average NA diet in a year Plants have many natural carcinogens as defenses against pests HERP: Human Equivalent Rat Potentcy – effort to show what will kill a rat and to what degree that translates to humans PCBs, water have low values; Clofibrate, phnobarbital have high values Not every item with toxic tied to it are not necessarily that toxic due to the scale the must be consumed at to have an effect on humans Variables in studies: Nature of carcinogen, rat strain, diet composition (fibre differences, food intake), experimental design, even wood chips in cages – all must be kept constant Cancer causes: 1. Genetics: a. New England Journal: Environmental and Heritable factors in causation of Cancer in Twin cohort study in Scandinavia – 45000 pairs of twins – 10000 cancers occurred: i. Stomach cancer: 28% heritable, 10% shared environ, 62% non-shared environ; 7:3 Evironment:genetics ratio ii. Cervical: low heritability, high non shared environ iii. Absolute risks for identical twins: 15%, for fraternal twins 6% iv. Unmistakable heredity: 1%, major component heredity: 15% v. 70-90% are environmentally caused (eg. viruses, alcohol, smoking, sun exposure, dietary patterns, natural radiation, soil constituents, natural carcinogens, industrial carcinogens) 2. Chemicals: a. Chimney sweeps: soot (carcinogenic materials) i. Sir Percival Potts in late 1700s noted that sweeps get high levels of testicular cancer b. Pollution c. Barbeque: comes from barbocoa (maker of barbecue)  Boucaniers  buccaniers i. Fat drips onto coal and is heated and sprayed back onto meat – dehydration, molecules change due to heat ii. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): charred material is like that in chimneys = carcinogen 1. Present in engine exhaust, tobacco smoke, some cooked meats 2. Cereals, oils and fats contribute to the total carcinogenic PAH (%) as they are of the highest percent consumption a. Toasted cereals have low PAH concentration, but at high consumption it can be critical iii. Heterocyclic amines: Flat molecules with lots of benzene 1. Eg. PHIPs (high in beef and finfish) can slip into grooves of DNA (intercalation) and can disrupt the normal function of DNA Mutagenic and cancer causing agents are from animal studies Individuals metabolize this substance at differing rates depending on their genetic make up Cytochrome P450: family of enzymes that alter the molecules in order to remove it from the body by making new more
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