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HIST 202 – Civil War of 1812.docx

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HIST 202
Catherine Desbarats

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HIST 202 Survey: Canada to 1867 (October 26 2011) Atlantic Revolutions Civil War of 1812 Major war in Europe between 1793-1850 Britains navy goes from 19,000 to over 120,000 sailors French/British mutual blockades 1806-1807 Naval impressment (Chesapeake affair, 1807) o Looking on American ships to see if there are any sailors on them to claim as British deserters. o Some of the sailors are trying to take refuge in American ships as refugees. o Naval Impressment; take by force people to serve in the navy o Off the cost of Virginia, British Ship called the Leopard trying to board an American ship called the Chesapeake. Chesapeake refuses and is fired on by the British ship. o Considered an act of war by the British. British Subjects vs. Naturalized CS citizens o 1790s up to the war of 1812 o the native groups in the area are trying on their own to take on the conflict of Pontiac. o Movement of prophecy that tried to get native people to separate themselves from Europeans and European trades British forts not evacuated Ohio Valley Native Confederacy o Politicalization = ideological question of political affiliation is the heart of the conflict. Tecumseh/Tenkswatawa/Battle of Tippecanoe 1811 o Argument for native unity and native attacks against Europeans o Outbreaks of prophecy throughout the Ohio Valley during this time o One of them continues during 1812; immerges a man named Tenkswetawa who is preaching much the same messages about getting rid of the whites. o A kind of sense of having been burned; the British evacuate their forts in 1794 o British stand back also and let the Americans gain a lot of land in the region. A lot of important peace treaties (Greenville in particular) o 1810-1811; Tenkswetawa sees the British have abandoned them and the Americans are taking over. Suggests a regroup and a resist. o Fruitful alliance between military warrior and spiritual leader. o Governor of Indiana territory (William Harrison) has the authority to attack and get rid of the natives in 1811. (Battle of Tippecanoe) o People are primed for war. What does this mean for the war of 1812 Britain will find allies in terms of a native confederacy A reason for the Americans to go to war as well o Are convinced the British are behind the native confederacy and the native resist. o Tremendous willingness to go to war at this time. o Native frontier warfare that the Americans thing the British are fronting. Makes Americans want to go to war In 1812 the Americans declare war on Britain Sense that Canada is just going to be up for the taking. American constitution worked out in the 1780s has pre-approved the inclusion of British/North American territories in the Republican treaties. (Canada) Doesnt turn out that way. PDS documentary on the war of 1812; straight up military history. Victories for British North America, and victories for the Americans American Strategies/ Republicans: Canada For the Taking Americans strategy is considered to be quite bundled in the sense that they could have invaded and split lower Canada from upper Canada and would have been a successful way to go. Instead they largely invade Upper Canada (perhaps for ideological reasons) o They start with an invasion of Detroit (most of the main battles are in the Niagara reason). By large British North Americans and Native Allies are able to repel these attacks. o Attempt to invade lower Canada (Richelieu area). They are defeated as well o Americans have better luck in 1813; navel defense in the Great Lakes (Lake Erie) that allow them to launch a second invasion of the Niagara region, and are capable of taking over the capital. Nobody expects them to do well on water, but they do. This is a total stalemate; there are no border changes in the peace treaty in 1815. In some sense it changes nothing. Does have a lasting effect on upper Canada, in that what had been a disparate collection of communities actually come together and begins to see itself as a common identity. Mythmaking (Isaac Brock, Queenston Heights 1812 The war is sugarcoated with the American perspective Contributed to a lot of mythmaking about Canada as a kind of loyalist place/defensive liberties against British conquests Obscures the complexities of what it was really about. Tecumseh: Death of Moraviantown, 1813; Laura Secord USA is really split between federalist and republican visions Federalists dont want to go to war; New England is deeply opposed to this war to the point where some new Englanders contemplate separating themselves from Americans. American Republic was a fragile place during this time. o Crumbling under debt/deep financial problems o New Englanders think its suicide to go to war because its so expensive. Civil War; there is a great unfinished business between Aristocratic British Imperial Vision and American Republican Vision o Fought out on the battlefield and in some instances on either side. Irish Soldiers in this War; important subplot Biggest source of migrants to the US are Irishmen Many of these people are disproportionally fighting on the American side A way in which these people are continuing to fight their battle against the British Empire The war of 1812 reveals a lot of tensions that exist on both sides (British North American vs. American) War of 1812 is forgotten; remembered for its National Anthem, the siege of Fort Henry; etc. Andrew Jackson (Battle of New Orleans; 1815) New Orleans resists being taken over This happens after the peace treaty has
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