HIST 205- Ancient Mediterranean History- LECTURE 20- Caesar

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Published on 14 Nov 2014
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HIST 205- Ancient Mediterranean History- Lecture 20: Caesar
I. Sic Semper Tyrannis
10th January, 49 BC: alea iacta est
Caesar crosses the Rubicon, invades Italy against the Senate, so in essence by
crossing this symbolic boundary he was declaring war against Italy.
49 BC: Caesar invades Italy, goes south
-Support of Italy (back to the politics of Roman Italy, they wind up siding wit him
over the Senate)
-Pompey an Senate abandon Rome realizes that they can’t stay there forever
cause Caesar is fast, so they decided to abandon Rome gathered the idols,
Roman treasury and leaves Rome, when Caesar gets there, he finds it wide
open)
-Caesar named Dictator at Rome (leftover the Senate who remained in the city,
who supported Caesar. He has total control of the Roman state)
Pompey and Senate flee to Greece
-Caesar remains in Rome for a short period of time but he goes in pursuit of
Pompey and the Senate in Greece
Battle of Pharsalia and aftermath
-Caesar pursues Pompey and Senate to Greece
-Battle of Pharsalia, 9th August, 48 BC
-Pompey survives but flees (rest of the Senate and armies are captured, Caesar
has won for the moment but Pompey is not dead still a big battle cause it’s a
clash of Roman ideologies)
-Pompey flees to Alexandria
-Ptolemy XIII’s gamble goes onto shore and almost immediately Pompey was
captured because he wanted to impress Caesar
-Arrival of Caesar, War at Alexandria meets with Ptolemy who presents him
with the head of Pompey, he was furious with Ptolemy because Caesar believed
that he deserved better than this. Ptolemy’s gamble failed and now Caesar
wanted to overthrow Ptolemy
-Enter Cleopatra XVII sister/ wife of Ptolemy, she couldn’t do too much.
Instantly managed to seduce him. Cleopatra was exiled but she wanted to head
the country.
The Nile Cruise: Caesar and Cleopatra, January- April 47 BC
-Caesarion (Republic was in turmoil and Rome needs him but he spends this
winter with Cleopatra something changed in Caesar, starts to see differences
with Caesar amorous cruise, treated as a King, going down in Eastern
decadence. April (Cleopatra gives birth to a son).
-Return to Rome (April 47 BC. This was more than just a diplomatic marriage)
47- 44 BC: Caesar the Dictator
-Return to Rome, Triumphs
-Senate (and himself) heap honours upon him (dictator perpetuus perpetual
dictator) terrifies a lot of Romans and Caesar becomes heavy handed
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