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HIST 215
Sarah Waurechen

Tuesday February 12th SADB M-1 for midterm february 26th Nationalism What was different about the nationalist movements that unified Italy and Germany? I. Theories and Definitions A. What is Nationalism? 1. Contested: borders and relationship between different states 2. We need to se a belief in three things a) Belief that there does exist a nation which has explicit and peculiar characteristics b) The interests of that nation take priority over all else c) The nation should be as independent as possible: sovereignty is key 3. Debate: whether or not nationalism is a modern phenomenon B. Nationalism as Modern 1. A diverse group of thinkers have argued that nationalism is fundamentally related to modernity (Marx, Lenin etc.) a) Nations emerge as a central component of and cannot exist outside the context of modernity b) rapid industrialization, urbanization and technological advances allowed for systemic integration and the emergence of what would become nationalism (1) Standardization, centralization and increased circulation of people and ideas within the national borders c) 18th c. we start to get military expansion, centralized gov. and taxation systems - a sense of state bureaucratic coherence (a) Post revolutionary context - the french revolution introduces specific debates i) Interest in participation in a state and the people d) Nationalism and the modern state thus go hand in hand 2. 19 c. theories and others argue that nations are natural a) It has existed since the dawn of human society: primordialists b) The nation is an organic group of people held together by shared language, religion, culture, customs and tradition c) A politically conscious ethny that claims statehood by virtue of it being an ethny (1) Ethny: extended kin group 3. Nationalism was born before the 19c. but the nation is not natural and was not always there - born either during the english civil wars or the french revolution a) So many are neither perennial nor modern b) They emerge between places and people and from social relations and social interactions c) Is it a negative construct (so against something else) or positive qualities? C. A longer history of Nations? II. Nationalism before Italian and German Unification A. British Nationalism 1. Took root earlier, at least in some forms, that anywhere else 2. The common law: law set by precedent (customs, traditions and laws) a) Gives them a sense of a national culture 3. Uniformity of language a) Develop and utilize the vernacular 4. Limited geographical borders a) Its an island 5. Constitutional monarchy a) People can contribute! 6. Nationalism is always British not English a) Post Union period therefore (1) At this point the British effectively define themselves negative against a catholic France (2) This is part of their vision of a growing empire B. The French Revolution 1. Inconceivable: cannot do it without the support of popular sovereignty 2. Proclaimed the sovereignty of the nation and the rights and duties of citizens a) Peculiar character for france, belief the nation was sovereign, and national interest took precedence over everything else b) They hoped to teach this character to everyone else as well C. A Re-cap of 1848 1. In the early 19th c. students in German states were already calling for a unified Germany a) 1848 Frankfurt Parliament discussed German unification a lot (1) Smaller or larger German Lines? (2) Austrian Empire or Prussia to be the basis? (a) Austria already controlled many minority nations (like hungary and bohemia) 2. Italy: Garabaldi managed to beat back Austrian armies a) The conservative forces though were still too strong b) But you cannot hold off change forever (1) Once ideas surface you cannot get rid of them III. The Risorgimento A. Nationalist Movement: the Resurgence 1. Fueled by propaganda and memories of defeat in 1848 B. Italy was still broken into many smaller states 1. Austria still controlled Lombardi and Venetia C. Victor Emmanuel the II , Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Mazzini 1. Emmanuel wanted to created a unified Italy under Sardinia a) Under Cavour - positioned himself between clerical right and republican left (1) He wanted to expand Sardinia’s constitutional monarchy (2) He was a skilled politician - ruthless 2. Mazzini was the representative of a much more popular form of nationalism: secret socialist society called Young Italy a) Supposed to mobilize european masses to rise up against democracy and nationhood b) Mazzini vowed to wear black until Italy was united (mourning) c) Italians would eventually unite under God&People (1) Rid themselves of their independent rules’ (2) Establish a democratic, unitary state with a capital in rome (3) It would then liberate the rest of Europe d) Marx called him “that everlasting old ass” 3. Mazzini planned an uprising in Lombardy but Cavour tipped off
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