Class Notes (837,550)
Canada (510,314)
History (1,443)
HIST 304 (12)
Lecture

1989.docx

6 Pages
125 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIST 304
Professor
Charlie Sharpe
Semester
Winter

Description
End of Cold War in Europe II 4/17/2013 8:56:00 PM East Europe in the late 1980s Year of change in East Europe 1989 How did the general secretary of the communist party of the soviet union – Gorbachev – shape and influence the fall of communism in eastern Europe? Bulgarian communists came to power in 1944  Todor Zhivko (1954-1989)  Gave steadfast support for soviet leadership  Participated in crackdown of Prague  Compared to Greece, not doing well.  1988 expelled nearly 300 000 muslims Romania  Most repressive of iron curtain countries  Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu (1965-1989) o Persued policy of liberalization until 1972  ‘megalomania’  everything all at once  intervened personally in the economy but his ideas and policies were shit. Decided to export almost all agricultural and industrial production to pay off all debt at once  no historical tradition of opposition to its leaders  Romanians hated Ceausescus Czechoslovakia  Gustav Husák (1968-1989)  Stripped all suspected dissdents of jobs and houses  Marxist-leninist technocrats lead Czechoslovakia  Faced only one significant problem after 1968 – increased hostility between Czech and Slovak populations o Moscow granted Slovaks increased autonomy in the country  GDR – economic performance outdid all other eastern European countries o Had to borrow from W. Germany and Soviet Union GDR (E. Germany)  Erich Honecker (1971-1989)  Dissidents fled early, not many left by time of berlin wall  Individuals most capable of leading dissidents did not like W. German model  Size and scope of E. German secret police made it practically impossible to oppose the regime in an organized way  Helsinki acts – Honecker considered human rights a grave threat to E. German police  180 000 informers – teenagers and children Gorbachev allowed free and open elections in soviet union  Pressured E. Euro leaders to take up reform Hungary  Janos Kadar (1956-1988) o Not with iron fist o Goulash communism o Worked to improve human rights o 1980s – Hungarians allowed to travel to W. Europe o allowed for economic liberalism (reforms in 1979)  Karoly Grosz (1988-89) Albania  Enver hoxha (1945-85)  Ramiz alia o 1991 Yugoslavia  Josef tito  Permitted small-scale enterprises  1990s civil war Poland  Communist party unable to run country  Wojciech jaruselski instituted military government Soviet union  Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)  Sinatra doctrine  No well defined ideas and policies at first  1987-88 results apparent  awakening of a civil society  publishing scene flourishing  dissident movements debating human rights, immigration and democracy 1989 hungary in 1989  first steps in change  pleas for change in Budapest unique o came from inside Hungarian communist party  reformers faced opposition from janos kadar o road blocks  grosz began democratizing hungarian communist party  Hungarian political parties o Hungarian democratic forum (September 1987) o Alliance of free democrats (november 1988) o Alliance of young democrats (Hungarian civic union) (march 1988)  Gorby actively supported hungary  Dec 7 1988 gorby speech to UNGA –
More Less

Related notes for HIST 304

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit