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Lecture 14

Lecture 14 (revised).docx

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McGill University
Kinesiology&Physical Education
EDKP 330
David J Pearsall

11/6/2012 1:20:00 PM Main causes of death in Canada  Cancer ~30%  Heart disease ~22%  Other ~23% Prevalence of cancer  Second leading cause of death in USA (2009) ~25% of all deaths o 45% of men o 38% of women  10-15% are hereditary o remaining: external factors (environment, lifestyle)  Globally : 7.6 million deaths o Expected to rise to 17.5 million  Likely to increase due to growing population in the high risk category Economic costs of cancer  Many cancer related to health behavior o 1/3 of deaths related to life style factors  Direct/indirect costs differ for cancer type  Estimated $228.1 billion Deaths by cnacer  Lung/bronchitis- #1 cancer killer o Men > women  Prostate (men)  Breast o More prevalent in women (100x) but occurs in both What is cancer?  Uncontrolled abnormal cell growth/proliferation  Many different causes o Internal/external factors  Can act alone or in synergy over time to lead to cancer  Idiopathic o Cause may never be known  Incidence vs prevalence o Incients: new cases of cancer o Prevalence: existing cases of cancer Of Cancer 11/6/2012 1:20:00 PM Development of Cancer  Mulistage model of carcinogenesis o Cascade towards uncontrolled proliferation  Uncontrollable/abnormal cellular proliferation (growth) o Extra cells form a mass of tissues called a growth or tumor  Tumors:  Benign (non cancerous): do not spread from its origin and usually non-life threatening  Precancerous cells become stable cells  Malignant (cancerous): invade neighboring tissue & spread to other parts of body via circulatory system(metastasis)  Can develop tumors in other regions of the body Multistage model of carcinogenesis  Stage 1- initiation o Result of genetic mutation, spontaneous change, external cause  Stage 2- promotion o Converted cells can become precancerous  Characterized by rapid proliferation  Some may be turned back into stable cells instead rd  Don’t progress to 3 stage  Stage 3- progression o When proliferating precancerous cells become full invasive tumors  Cells are now considered cancer cells Main groups  30 different types o carcinoma: skin/tissue that line internal organs  lung, breast o sarcoma: bones, muscle, connective tissue  fat, bone, muscle o lymphoma: lymphatic system o leukemias: blood-forming tissue (bone marrow)  blood stream Of cancer 11/6/2012 1:20:00 PM Modifiable  PA o Important risk factor o Can lower risk  Most consistently in colon/breast cancers  Obesity o BMI >/ 25-30 = significant risk  Tobacco use o Lung/bronchial cancer  Poor nutrient intake o Low in essential nutrients/excessive alcohol consumption  Excessive sun exposure o Primary risk for skin cancer  Toxic environment exposure o Long term exposure to chemical, ionizing radiation, infectious diseases Non-modifiable  Age o More prevalent now a days b/c people are living to be much older  Increase risk w/ increased age  ~70% occur in people >55  Heredity o Increase PA/healthy lifestyle can reverse this  Genes that are specific to cancer but need to be triggered  PA can reduce the risk of transcription of these genes  Ie how genes are expressed depends on interactions with environmental exposures  Sex o Different cancers in different sexes  Men: prostate ~27% (10% die)  Lung ~14%  Biggest risk of death ~ 28% die  Colorectal ~13%  Women: ovarian/endometrial  Breast ~28%  Kills 15%  Lung ~14%  Kills 27%  Colorectal 11%  Kills ~12% 11/6/2012 1:20:00 PM Leading cause of death in BOTH men and women 2 main types  non-small cell o most common o grows/spreads slowly  small cell o fast growing/spreading o not as common o traced back to tobacco use Risk factors  Age  Sex  Tobacco use  10-20x more likely to develop lung cancer  Exposure to chemicals  Radiation  Air pollution  Tuberculosis Symptoms  Bloody phlegm  Chest pain  Cough  Loss of
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