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MUAR 211 (179)
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Chapter 6 notes.docx

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Music-Arts Faculty
MUAR 211
Jerry M.Cain

th Unit II: Early Music: An Overview before 18 Century standard repertory: large body of music from which concert artists and conductors usually draw their programs Chapter 6: The Middle Ages *tune & polyphony originated during this time 6.1::Music and the Church: Plainchant *Church cultivated music, composers were in holy orders, musicians were church choirboys Music and Church Services: Liturgy *difference between music now and back then: free choice by minister ex: Gospel music = fixed by higher authority *liturgy: higher authority (complex systems of worship) ex: Zen in Buddhism - also includes dress code, incenses, candles, movements ex: life of Christ, main sites, Virgin Mary in Christianity *music then tied devotion, spiritual and chanting together Plainchant *plainchant: Gregorian chant = official music of Catholic Church (a great repertory of melodies designated for liturgy - unaccompanied - monophonic (one-line) music for voices Characteristics of Plainchant *nonmetrical: no clear established meter , rhythm is free *medieval modes (not major/minor) : Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian [ D, E, F, G ] **half steps & whole steps** Gregorian Recitation and Gregorian Melody *recitation on single pitch: texts from Old Testament *long melodies: significant occasions (prayers at Mass) *reciting tone: pitch is repeated again and again with variations at beginning and end of phrases *antiphon (genre): workaday little pieces *melismas: groups of notes on one syllable Plainchant antiphon: "In Paradisum" - Anonymous Plainchant sequence "Columba Aspexit" - Hildegard of Bingen *instrumental drone: single two note chord running continuously *based on HIldegard's poem *sequence (genre): more elaborate melody than antiphon = series of short tunes sung twice with variation: AA' BB' CC' 6.2::Music at Court *late Middle Ages: princes became major supporters of music Troubadour and Trouvère Songs *Age of Chivalry: 12-13th century *troubadours/trouvere/ minnesinger: noble poet-composers who performed songs -knights, princes, kings - [hypothetical guess] wrote the poems and got jongleurs to compose music *jongleurs: popular musicians *music: just a tune without accompaniment *alba (poetic type): "dawn so
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