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McGill University
NUR1 324

SUMMARY RESPIRATIONFunctions of the respiratory systemFunction off the respiratory zone gas exchangeoIn the lungs we add oxygen to the blood and release carbon dioxide in the environmentoIn working cells oxygen diffuses from blood to ISF to cells while metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide move in the opposite direction oTherefore both respiratory system and CVS work in collaboration to allow appropriate gas exchangeFunctions of the conducting airways1Defence against bacterial infection and foreign particlesThe epithelial cells possess cilia and secrete mucousForeign particles stick to the mucous and the cilia constantly sweeps the mucous up into the pharynxTobacco smoking paralyzes the cilia thus inhibiting this defence mechanism 2Warm and moisten inhaled air3Produce sound and speech with the vocal cords4Regulation of air flow smooth muscle around the airways may contract or relax to alter resistance to air flow Anatomy of the respiratory systemThe respiratory tractoAir can enter either by the mouth or the noseoIf it enters by the nose it passes through the nasal septum and the nasal turbinates which clean the air of big dust particlesoAir then passes into the pharynx common to air and food the larynx and the tracheaoThe trachea divides into two bronchi each of which divides into lobar and segmental bronchioRight main bronchus3 lobar bronchioLeft main bronchus2 lobar bronchioThe segmental bronchi divides further into smaller branchesoThe smallest airways without alveoli are the terminal bronchioles oSurface of the lungsvisceral pleuraSubdivisions of the conducting airways and terminal respiratory unitsoThe airways consist of a series of tubes that branch and become narrower shorter and more numerous as they penetrate into the lungs Conducting and respiratory zonesoConducting zone Airways from the mouth and nose openings all the way down to the terminal bronchiolesThey conduct air from environment to the respiratory zoneSince they do not participate in gas exchange they are said to form the anatomical dead space oRespiratory zone Characterized by the presence of alveoli in the walls of the airways 1
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