1-Introduction and Research
a. Behaviourism/Operant: A. John Watson: black bosy psychology: measure response-
Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning eg. Feed dogs to salivate everyday therefore dogs
eventually associate him with food and salivate even when he appears without food.
Premise: only observable events can be studied
B. Operant conditioning: behaviours from environment (reinforcers (rewards) &
C. Observational learning: imitation (media, tv, etc.)
D. Social learning: learn how to behave (civility, frontal lobe)
b. Psychodynamic (Freud): unsconcious thought: id (want); ego (wait that’s wrong); and
superego (I won’t do this because that’s not who I am); stages need to be met or will bite
you in the but later:
1. Oral phase (0-18mo): breastfeeding; about nurturing not nutrition
(consequences=smoke, overeat, overtalk)
2. Anal phase (18mo-3yrs): toilet training; about parent approach
(consequence=hoarder, messy, clean freak)
3. Phallic phase(3yrs-6yrs): understand genders
4. Latency phase(6yrs-puberty): libido suppressed, ego and superego
5. Genital phase(puberty onwards): libido /interest
c. Cognitive Behaviours is a function of mental processes
• -perception -thinking -memory -problem solving
• Works at information processing
• We come to know how to behave eg. What thought trigger aggression? -seen as a key
explanation of depression
• An individual’s perception of a situationbehaviour self-concept: “I’m a tough guy”
• Airline Passenger Model
• Passenger 1 (retired pilot)- doesn’t notice air pocket
• Same stimulus Passenger 2 (nervous, 1 flight)- “We’re gonna die!!”
• Childhood cognition: work of Jean Piaget
• Our stage: formalized thoughtthink on many dimensions
d. Socio-cultural • Behaviour and attitudes are affected by our culture and social influences
• Look at : -gender -income level -Lifestyle -age -“ethnicity”, not race
• Ex. Differences in math scoresculture (far east often get higher scores)
• -Process of Acculturationimmigrant groups
• -Cross-culture (blended) no such thing as African American anymorenew realities
• -Differences in dietary patterns
• -Depression may be linked to social stressors (poverty and unemployment)
e. Biological/Physiological: relationship between biological processes and behaviour; brain
chemistry (neurotransmitters); role of genetics ex. Genetic vulnerability; set point theory
(obesity born with set point, starting point); endocrine system (hormones); diet affects
neuron (ex. Aspartame); neuroscience (functioning of neuron); hardwired (involuntary)-
fight or flight; what brain mechanisms control aggressive behaviour?
-Hypothesis: “Am Exact Prediction about Outcomes” It is hypothesized that… eg. Cellphones in
carslikelihood of accidents
• *hypothesis is testedsupport or non-support for a theory
-Operational Definitions precise, specific definition for terms “ For the purposes of this
study, an eating disorder is defined as…”
-Independent variable: what causes changes ex. sodium
-Dependent variable: numbers, ex. Body weight
-Correlation Compares the relationship between two sets of data does not indicate cause-
• Ex. Foot size correlated with word knowledge (ignores AGE…)
• Prediction: correlation coefficient (r) [linear] where max +1.0 (both variables up
or down), 0 (no correlation) or -1.0 (one up, other down) as min.
-Experiment: establish cause and effect, need control, check for placebo (control expectancy,
very strong), independent and dependent variable
-Case study: single individual-profile -unrepresentative
• Eg. Calendar GeorgeJustin Hopman from rainman movie. Has severe
psychiatric problems (autism-institutionalized all his life). Knows day/weather of
any date/yr but can’t add 1+1 Idiot Savant
-Naturalistic studies: Observational Study powerfulbut prone to error
• –naturalisticobserve in natural environment ex. Go to class to observe grade 7
• -laboratory • Observer bias: usually multiple observers ex. Observers considers shaking
hands as violent
Observer effect: presence of observer affects behaviour
-Survey: opinions *key is sampling “population” vs sample * random samples and non-random
samples to infer findings
• Open-ended questionsask patients what they thinktoo many possible answers
• *Use of likert scale (ex. Sa A n/c D SD)
• “anonymity”to ensure honest answer
-Population: group of people findings will apply to ex. Undergraduates of McGill’s Macdonald
-Single-blind research: subjects unaware
-Double-blind research: subjects and data gatherers unaware
-Mean (average): problemoutliers change average therefore need standard deviation
-Standard deviation: Number from raw scores which make up mean.
• Its size tells us about spread (range) of scores which make up mean
• Large SD: bigger spread of raw scores (see chart)max within up or down 3 SD is
-Glia: the cells that help to make the brain more efficient by: holding the neurons together,
removing waste products such as dead neurons, making the myelin coating for the axon,
performing other manufacturing, nourishing and cleanup tasks. They are the “janitors” of the
nervous system and the most numerous cell in the brain. They do not conduct electricity.
-Neuron : specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system; contains three
parts : cell body, dendrite and axon.
-Interneurons : Carry info between neurons in the CNS. Most numerous.
-Dendrite : branch-like extensions of a neuron that receive signals from other neurons.
-Soma(cell body): “head-office”, part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, carries out the
metabolic functions of the neuron.
-Axon: slender, tail-like extension of the neuron that transmits signals to the dendrites or cell
body of other neurons or to the muscles, glands, or other parts of the body.
-Myelin: white, fatty coating wrapped around some axons that act as insulation and enable
impulses to travel much faster.
-Synapse: junction where axon of a sending neuron communicates with a receiving neuron
across the synaptic cleft. Synaptic vesicles
-Transduction Process to convert physical energy into electrical impulses [universal language of
• Eg. Light wavesretina[translator-site of transduction]impulses to occipital lobes
-Action potential when a neuron is stimulated. More positively charged particles from into the
cell making the inside of the neuron suddenly positive compared to the outside of the cell
(usually negatively charged). This sudden reversal is the action potential.
Lock and Key
-Reuptake neurotransmitters unused and brought back to terminal of neuron- cocaine blocks
reuptake of dopamine.
-Neurotransmitter: a chemical that is released into the synaptic cleft from the axon terminal of
the sending neuron. Crosses the synapse and binds to appropriate receptors on the dendrites
or cell body of the receiving neuron. Influences the cell either to fire or not to fire.
-Agonists: have similar effects.--> promotes ex. Caffeine promotes flutamate
-Antagonists: have opposing effectsblocker ex. Pain meds.
-Serotonin: neurotransmitter that plays role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression
-Acetylcholine: Neurotransmitter that plays a role in learning, memory, and rapid eye movement
(REM) sleep. It excites skeletal muscles.
-Central NS Brain and Spinal Cord
• Brain: 1.5 kg, evolutionary in nature, distinct regions
• Extension of the brain *transmits info