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Lecture 4

biol 202_lecture 4.docx

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PHGY 210
John White

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January 13, 2014 BIOL 202 Lecture 4 Ability to taste PTC is dominant (T/_) -two unaffected gave an affected (non-taster) Genotype of IIII-1: T/t b/c offspring is t/t and mate is t/t and Taster has to have T to be unaffected and t for offspring Genotype of III-11: T/_ -offspring are all tasters, possible that t allele was not passed on ( ½ * ½ * ½ * ½ = 1/16 ) -although probability of above is small, still take into account so T/_ is a better answer than T/T -Both alleles enter pedigree at generations II and III b/c condition is not rare Mendel studies 7 separate traits, the genes for these traits were located on 7 chromosomes -if all the genes were on the same chromosome, then independent assortment would not have been observed Independent assortment -dihybrid crosses -double homozygous: homozygous for two traits -parents produce gamete types: R, y and r, Y -F1: double heterozygote R/r – Y/y, dominant conditions shown: yellow and round 315 : 108 : 101 : 32 ~ 9:3:3:1 Disease resistant and flood tolerance Plant 1: D/D f/f Plant 2: d/d F/F F1: D/d F/f Desired traits: D/D F/F and self-pollinate to obtain more seed 1/16 of double homozygote progeny F2 ¾ ¾ ¼ = 9/64 ¼ 1/2 ¼ ½ ¼ = 1/256 Flower colour F2 expected = 1 WW: 2 Ww: 1ww Chi square = summation of (observed – expected)^2/expected In this case, chi square = 6.8 Degrees of freedom = January 15, 2014 Expected are under the hypothesis we proposed 5.99 is the critical value -if higher, then we reject the hypothesis -degrees of freedom = number of phenotypic classes -1 Dihybrid Cross - 556 * 9/
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