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Lecture 6

POLI 227 Lecture 6.docx

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School
McGill University
Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 227
Professor
Rex Brynen
Semester
Winter

Description
POLI 227 January 18, 2013 Lecture 6 Expansion of Colonial Rule: Africa Initial colonization of coast  16 -18 /19 century: slave trade ‘Scramble for Africa’ **Note: if you just use expansion of GDP as an indicator of dvlpmt, it would seem that econ dvlpmt causes countries to leap ahead – however, this doesn’t take into acct the pervasive inequality that tends to come from this DVLPMT IS COMPLEX – there are many aspects to dvlpmt, which must all be taken into acct Expansion of Euro influence into sub-Saharan Africa  For a long time, Europe didn’t care about Africa except for as a source of slaves  18 century: European colonialism begins; on the eve of WW1, most of Africa is under Euro political control Part of the dvlping world last to be colonized: Middle East… why?  Already a great pwr under the Ottomans  Beginning of the 19 century: Ottoman pwr began to fade  Pre-WW1: some Euro control of Middle East  Britain: Yemen, Egypt  France: Algeria  Btwn WW1 and WW2: former Ottoman possessions briefly came under Euro control Legacies of colonialism in the dvlping world: Modernization approach: colonialism is part and parcel of dvlpmt (econ changes partly spurred by outside actions)  Though it happened more quickly in this time, not very diff from modernization  Dvlping world ‘had’ to undergo the changes colonialism brought Dvlpmt theorists argue that colonialism put in place a relationship that made it very hard for countries to dvlp Colonialism in the Americas:  ‘American pattern’ (Clapham)  Indigenous societies generally destroyed or marginalized  Settler regimes, new social order based on race and class  Plantation/hacienda econs  When decolonization comes, poli control passes from metropole to local white elite (rather than to indigenous population) Colonialism in Africa and Asia:  Indigenous societies often larger, more robust, or more remote  Poli control passed to locals significantly influenced by colonial pwrs after decolonization  Agenda set by colonial needs (cotton, etc.)  Borders set by colonial pwrs – fundamental implications for current politics (allotment of resources, etc…)  (Racist) ideological justification – “white man’s burden” o French thought they had a civilizing mission o Germany want its ‘place in the sun’ Patterns of colonial rule:  Centralized/direct – white colonial administrators, decisions taken more often in Euro capitals rather than in the field (e.g. Algeria, considered an overseas part of France)  No local participation whatsoever  Indirect – typically associated w/ British colonial rule (though there was some variation from this, France tended more to direct rule and Britain tended more to indirect rule)  Co-opted local elites ; bought their loyalty w/ some petty pwrs (e.g. Indian princes who were granted nominal pwr by GB and ruled essentially as GB’s agents – British backed them w/ money and force)  Gulf monarchies another example  In some cases, the British invented local elites (e.g. monarchy in Jordan – of Saudi [then Hashemite] Arabian origin, dates to post-WW1 and was a diplomatic tool)… colonizers other than the Britons did this too, though it was a characteristically B
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