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Sept. 27th Lecture Notes

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Political Science
POLI 347
Julie Norman

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 27, 2012:  1967 and Aftermath:  in June 1967, Israel launches a preemptive strike on Egyptian airfeilds.  June 5-7, Israel continues moving full force ahead in the Sinai and takes it, and defeats Jordan in the West bank and East Jerusalem. They also manage to break through the lines in Syria, who were the strongest military opponentthand on 8-9 Israel defeats the Syrians in Golan Heights.  June 10 was the ceasefire, and in total 800 Israelis and 18,000 Arabs were killed in the 6-day conflict.  There were new borders and territories: the Sinai, West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, and East Jerusalem were taken by Israel. They don’t annex these territories right away, this is when we start using the term “occupation,” but it is still controversial to describe it as such. Instead, it was the military presence and administration in these regions. Some within Israel instead refer to the territories as being disputed rather than occupied. They don’t consider it an occupation because there was never an official peace treaty so they say that the borders weren‘t clear to begin with. International law uses the term occupation.  Another refugee flow was another part of the aftermath—several hundred thousand refugees from the West Bank and other areas fled, and the 1948 refugee problem was still large scale. th  The Israel cabinet convened at the “June 19 Meeting” to decide what to do with the territories. It was agreed that the Sinai would be used for a bargaining chip in a peace deal with Egypt. They agree to let the Golan heights go back to Syria in exchange for peace, but this doe not come to pass and they annexed it to become official a part of Israel in 1980. Israel agreed to unite East and West Jerusalem and not to yield on their possession of the city. All of it was annexed to become part of Israel (not internationally recognized). The issues of the West Bank and Gaza were left unresolved. The justice minister said that they couldn’t maintain an occupation of the land without annexing it and making the people in the area citizens. The rest of the people had an interest in keeping the territories but didn’t want to absorb the people. This meeting has been referred to as “the decision not to decide.”  United Nations Security Council Resolution 242: o “(i) Withdrawal of Israel armed forced from territories occupied in the recent conflict” had controversial wording because it says “territories” and not “the territories,” which can be interpreted as Israel having to withdrawal from some territories but not all (in the French version, the “the” is including, causing more confusion). o “(ii) … acknowledgement of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries.” o Reaffirms just settlement to refugee problem (which is unspecific and don’t really specify a solution), free navigation of waterways. o This seems to imply that it is an occupation by international standards.  Aftermath for Palestinians: in the 1960s, there was renewed Palestinian nationalism and resistance. o The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) was created as an umbrella organization for the paramilitary groups fighting for the liberation of Palestine. It was created in 1964. Fatah was the most significant of these paramilitary groups—Arafat becomes the leader of Fatah in 1969 and is seen as the leader of the resistance. o The PLO after 1967 start playing the role of low intensity cross-border warfare, terrorist attacks, etc. Fatah and many of the other PLO factions are based in Jordan and launch their attacks from Jordan. o In 1968-1969, in the height of the attacks, Israel decides to do something about it and launches a raid into one of the
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