POLI 212 Lecture Notes - Anti-Clericalism, Elizabethan Religious Settlement, Authoritarianism
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FEBRUARY 17, 2012: Conference
Main issues in the development of states include industrialization (timing and type),
regime type, religious questions, questions of nation and nationalism and how that
connects to territory (territorial nation vs. political/cultural nation), effects of war
Significant ideologies: Socialism becomes very important after 1848, Democratic
Republicanism, fascism (more of a 20th century phenomenon), constitutional
monarchism, and liberalism (focus on individual property rights, can co-exist with
republicanism and monarchism), and conservatism.
Geography is a constant and important force. Questions of what the appropriate
size of a nation state is in order to be able to capitalize on larger economic forces.
Bismarck: the founder of the first modern welfare state (to take pressure off of his
regime from the lower classes).
Marriage of Iron and Rye was to gain the loyalty of the land owning elites.
State formation in Germany was more top-down and elite driven, and the German
state was able to absorb the reforming spirit of the French revolution without
becoming a Republican state.
State Formation in France:
1. Why was the French Revolution incomplete? The Revolution in France is
incomplete because it does not settle the regime question, nor does it provide a
religious settlement. The revolution divides France, whereas in Britain they are able
to hold onto a constant regime and settle (in general) some Catholic-Protestant
differences. They were anti-clerical because the church was seen as a symbol of the
old regime. After the revolution there were restorationists.
2. What was the nature of the different governments in France after the
Revolution and why did they take these forms? The third republic was the
regime that collaborated with Nazi Germany and was mostly just a puppet regime
out of Vichy. Fourth republic had a weak executive and extreme parliamentary rule,
and the proportional representation made it fragmented. It had a weak executive
because they fear authoritarianism. The fifth republic has a much stronger and
more empowered executive, but there isn’t enough in the way of checks on the
president’s power and they aren’t held accountable.
3. What were the primary divides in French politics after 1789 and how were
these divisions resolved (or not)? There was disdain for compromise in general,
and there was a strong divide between those who wanted to stick with the ancient
regime, who was generally the elites and the conservatives who benefitted from
this, and those who wanted representation in the form of a republic. They were also
deeply polarized with religion.
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