POLI 227 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Petite Bourgeoisie, Bourgeoisie, Glass Ceiling

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POLI 227
January 18, 2013
Lecture 7
Decolonization Americas:
Wave of decolonization in Latin America in the first part of the 19th century
Spanish and Portuguese control weak in the early 19th century
Poli pwr passes to local white elite they began to press for more
independence from Europe for various poli and econ reasons
Hastened by American and French revolutions, Napoleonic Wars (heavy
burden of warfare), US (Monroe Doctrine) and British policy (policy
encouraged independence of colonies for geostrategic reasons)
Decolonization Asia:
Much later post-ww2
Partition of India incredibly violent (ethnic cleansing etc.)
Dutch attempted to reassert control in Indonesia post-WW2 (failure)
French attempted to reassert control in Indochina post-WW2 (had
collaborated w/ Japanese occupation during WW2)... British wanted French
back in Vietnam post-WW2
French experienced insurgency and ultimately lost Vietnam
Decolonization Africa:
Unlike the Americas, where Europeanized populations led the struggle for
independence, nat’list mvmts based on societal changes derived from
colonialism spurred demands for independence
Africa and Asia
Anti-colonialism in rural areas
Traditional elites had been marginalized or coopted
o Marginalized elites wanted their influence back
o Coopted elites were empowered and began to revel in their
authority and reject subordination
o New elites emerged and asked why they were subordinate to
frgners in their own society
Peasants
o Difficulty engaging in widespread resistance
o No spare time, econ and educational resources, limited social
horizons
o However, peasant revolts did occur when poli econ of rural
survival was threatened by colonial pwrs (e.g. forced labout
system)
o Peasant resistance was mostly quiet non-cooperation
Anti-colonialism in urban areas
Alienated rural migrants
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