Class Notes (809,262)
Canada (493,599)
Psychology (3,199)
PSYC 304 (50)

child dev class notes

7 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
PSYC 304
Marjorie Rabio

Child Development Class Notes Developmental Psychology: the study of changes in behaviour and abilities across a lifespan from conception to death Goals of Developmental Psychology: 1) Descriptive: identify children’s behaviour at various developmental points 2) Explanation: determine the causes and processes that produce developmental changes Child Psychology: the study of changes in behaviour and abilities from conception to age 18 Reasons to study children: 1) childhood is a period of huge, rapid changes 2) Early experiences are critical in determining later adult development (long-term influences, insight into complex adult processes) 3) Research on children has real-world applications The Self-Esteem Movement: gave only positive feedback to children. Problem: dumb kids still get bad self-esteem because they still know they’re dumb even if they get positive feedback. They just get pushed through the system and don’t get to learn/understand at their own pace. Nature VS Nurture: Is change inborn (biological) or the result of experience? Continuity VS Discontinuity: Is developmental change smooth and constant or does change occur in stages? Normative VS Idiographic: is the focus of the researcher on the universals of development (norms) or on individual differences? Early Developmental Theorists John Locke: Environmentalism: All knowledge is acquired through experience and learning. “tabularasa”= blank slate. We are all born equal Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Nativism: knowledge is inborn and unfolds naturally with age Johann Gottried Von Herder: Cultural Relativism: each culture should be examined and evaluated on its own terms Charles Darwin: Nativist, baby biography, Natural Selection (traits of an individual that increases its chances of survival are more likely to be passed along to future generations), Recapitulation (development of a person parallels the stages of development of the species) Stanley Hall: founded developmental psychology, invited Freud to USA. James Mark Baldwin: 1 CDN psych to study development. Interaction of environment and heredity John Watson: focus on observable behaviour, Behaviourism: human development results primarily from conditioning and learning processes Arnold Gesell: Nativist, Normative (produced norms), Maturation: biological processes primarily responsible for human development, sophisticated research techniques (Gesell’s dome) Sigmund Freud: Models of personality, techniques of psychoanalysis, 5 stage theory of psychosexual development, Interactionist (bio+enviro), early childhood experiences are influential for adulthood Libido: innate sexual energy, focused at erogenous zones Erogenous zones: stimulation here causes pleasure and gratification Failure to move on from a stage results in being fixated at that stage fixation manifests itself in adult behaviour Stages: 1) 0-1.5 yrs Oral mouth, sucking 2) 1.5-3 yrs Anal bowel movement + retention 3) 3-6 yrs Phallic genital area, Oedipus complex, identification 4) 6-12 yrs Latency repressed and inactive 5) 12-18 yrs Genital genital area, toward peers Erik Erikson: 8 stage Psychosocial model (social and cultural influences) Stages: 1) birth-1.5 basic trust vs mistrust 2) 1.5-3 autonomy vs. Shame (potty training, dress/feed oneself) 3) 3-6 initiative vs. Guilt (explore enviro vs stay close to parents) 4) 6-12 industry vs inferiority (school, solve problems/understand) 5) 12-18 identity vs role confusion (most important—search for identity) 6) Young Adult intimacy vs isolation (social network, connect/communicate) 7) Adult generativity vs stagnation (productive worklife vs stuck in a rut) 8) Older Adult ego integrity vs despair (happy, fulfilled vs regretful) Theories in Child Development: 1) Cognitive-Developmental approach Jean Piaget: interested in how children learn and reason. The nature of children’s knowledge changes as they develop. Clinical method. Development is the reorganization of knowledge into more complex schemes. Schemes: the cognitive structures that are used to understand the world. They reflect an object in the environment and the child’s reaction to that object. Organization: new knowledge must be integrated into existing schemes, not just added on (Guides cognitive development) Adaptation: the survival of an organism depends on its ability to fit with the environment (guides cognitive development) Assimilation: making sense of new information using existing cognitive structures (promotes cognitive adaptation) Accommodation: occurs when the existing structure must be changed to fit new information (promotes cognitive adaptation) Constructivism: interplay within two functions (promotes cognitive adaptation) Stages of Development: 1) Sensorimotor period (birth-2) schemes are simple reflexes. Knowledge reflects interactions w/ ppl + objects 2) Preoperational period (2-6) Child uses symbols to represent the world 3) Concrete operations (6-11) Child performs mental operations and logical problem solving 4) Formal operations (12-adulthood) Child can use formal problem solving and higher level abstract thinking Information-Processing Model: human cognitive processes are similar to the operations of computers. Cognition: 1) sensory input, 2) info processing, 3) behavioural output 2) Sociocultural approach Vygotsky: individual cognitive development is a result of cultural influences Through guided interactions with more experienced members of society, children learn problem solving (Dialectical process) which leads to internalization (learn something new and internalize it into your knowledge). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model: development occurs within broad social and cultural environments Transactional Influence: interaction of child’s characteristics and child’s environment Proposed 5 systems: 1) Microsystem (parents, school, friends) 2) Mesosystem (relation btw micro+exo) 3) Exosystem (parent’s workplace) 4) Macrosystem (attitudes of culture) 5) Chronosystem (passage of time) 3) Environmental/Learning Approach The goal is to explain how a child’s experiences interact with biological processes to produce development. Human behaviour is learned, not inborn. Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour that results from practice or experience (excludes transitory changes such as exhaustion or drug actions, learning must be reflected in observable behaviour, learning must not be due to biological maturation). Skinner: focused on Respondent learning and Operant conditioning. Respondent learning: environmental stimuli elicit reflexive responses (ex: salivation response to steak) Classical Conditioning: after several pairings of a neutral stimulus with a reflexive response, the neutral stimulus alone now elicits a response. Operant conditioning: refers to the impact of voluntary behaviours on the environment. Operant behaviours are controlled by their effects: behaviour c
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 304

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.