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Lecture 5

Lecture 5-8.doc

10 Pages

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PSYC 305
Heungsun Hwang

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thJanuary 18 Lecture 5The PancreasLocated right next to the liver Consists of the Exocrine and Endocrine PancreasEndocrine Pancreas contains Islets of Langerhans important for hormonal regulation which produces insulin glucagon somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptides The pancreas is associated with cellular nutrition and the balancing of glucose levels If this fails you suffer from diabetes mellitus This was the first endocrine disorder noted in history Before you could treat it with insulin diabetes was fatalDiabetes MellitusB cells in the Islets of Langerhans produce Insulin 45 units of insulin per day Frederik Banting and Charles BestDiabetes Type Ino insulin productionDiabetes Type IIlittle or insufficient production and high tissue insulin resistanceAdrenal GlandsRegulated by ACTH Attached superiorly to the kidneys Consists of the Adrenal Cortex Cortisol aldosterone androgens estrogens and the Adrenal Medulla adrenaline noradrenaline dopamine enkephalins Adrenal insufficiency associated with metabolic effects of the hormones of the adrenal glands Hypo activity is linked to weakness fatigue nausea weight loss low blood pressure Hyperactivity is linked to obesity and high blood pressureThe GonadsTwo distinct systems malefemale Regulated by FSH and LH from the pituitary Manufactures the sex cells the gametes and are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics Produces androgens estrogens and progestinsFemale OvariesContains a cortical layer that produces ovarian hormones estrogens androgens and progesterone Menstrual Cycle menses follicular and lutealFollicular phase maturing of the follicles regulated by estrogenOnce a certain level is reached LH causes follicle to release eggLuteal phase rupture follicle becomes corpus luteum If egg is not fertilised levels of hormone fall Menses occurMale TestesEndocrine glands are housed in the scrotum Housed there for temperature maintenance and protection Sperm must be housed a little below body temperature The hormone producing units are called Leydig cells Testosterone dihydrotestosterone estradiol dehydroepiandrosterone estrone progesterone and androstenedione It is the main regulator of male sexual behaviour and also involved with energy and production of red blood cells and spermFemale and Male gonads both produce the same hormones just in different quantitiesSummary Endocrine systems consist mostly of glands in the body which secrete specific hormones that have a variety of effects throughout the body These glands are mostly controlled by hormones from the pituitary The pituitary hormones are mostly controlled by hormones from the HTExceptions Some glands do not follow this scheme ie pancreas and the pineal glands in the CNS are not under the control of the HT or PT
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