Class Notes (810,844)
Canada (494,281)
Psychology (3,199)
PSYC 331 (96)


8 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
PSYC 331
Donald Taylor

Inter-Group Relations Midterm Study Guide Lecture One: 7 January • Inter-Group Relations – any aspect of human interaction that involves individuals perceiving themselves as members of a social category, or being perceived by others as belonging to a social category PROBLEMS: • different types of groups • no shared motivation or cohesion • Book – Theories of Inter-Group Relations ◦ written by Taylor ◦ deals with: ▪ Inter- Group RELATIONS (not conflict) ▪ INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES (not just USA) ▪ THEORIES (not data) ▪ SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (not sociology or political science) • Sometimes, conflict is beneficial ◦ “Non-violent mass action is employed to create such crises and tension that a community which has refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issues” - Martin Luther King, Jr. Lecture T wo: 9 January • RANT: Why Taylor doesn't like recording lectures • The Crisis in Social Psychology ◦ In Method ▪ many participants are university students; hardly a diverse sample • low external validity ◦ In Theory ▪ many mini theories exist ▪ twenty years ago, a “group” consisted of 5-6 people ◦ In Topic ▪ limit to a social psychology understanding of groups ▪ scientists motivated to research conflict: • wars/ rebellions/ racism/ discrimination • Why is there a history of neglect in social psychology towards inter-group relations? ◦ Research topics reflected societal problems ◦ Majority of research is from N.America ▪ influenced by american individualism ▪ racism does not receive as much attention as it should have • whites did not want racism to be an issue • PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY – Sigmeund Freud ◦ once you discard all of his un-testable theories and themes, you realize that his theories have severely impacted the field of psychology ▪ theories of the unconscious (repressed feelings and emotions) • no one could measure these • came out at a time where the field of psychology was trying to establish validity in the scientific community • Cognitive Revolution (~1990's) ◦ introduced the idea of cognition (unconscious) ◦ made Freud's ideas accessible ▪ priming experiments ◦ Basics of Psychoanalytic Theory: ▪ Irrationality of Human Thoughts/ Behaviors • vs. the field of economics, who assumes people are rational individuals ▪ Frustration/Aggression Theory • frustration always leads to aggression • people will avoid aggressing against powerful oppressors ◦ “kick the cat” ▪ TheAuthoritarian Personality • what makes someone susceptible to indoctrination, i.e. Explaining Nazism • defense mechanisms: psychological distortions that 'resolve' one's hang-ups ◦ inter-group conflict: an entire group has a 'hang-up' ▪ people w/ true self-esteem have no 'hang-ups' Lecture Three: 14 January • REMINDER: Inter-Group Relations – any aspect of human interaction that involves individuals perceiving themselves as members of a social category, or being perceived by others as belonging to a social category • problems: ◦ no mention of type of group ◦ no mention of collective motivation or cohesion/ shared goals • we focus on national, ethnic, and racial groups for the most part ◦ sometimes gender groups • core cultural group - ◦ culture of your birth ◦ culture in which you are raised ◦ group you identify with the most • people identify in different ways • inter-Group relations focuses on many different types of groups • we need an operational definition of “what makes a group a group” ◦ U.S. Definition ▪ two or more people ▪ interact with each other ▪ interdependent ◦ E.U. Definition ▪ collection of more than two people ▪ have the same social identity ▪ have same definition of: • who they are • what shared attributes they have • Group Member Prototypes: ◦ interrelated attributes ◦ capture similarities and differences between the groups ◦ prescribe group membership-related behaviors ◦ polarized away from out-group features ◦ describe ideal, often hypothetical group members • many of the characteristics we associate with our ingroups are not actually unique to our cultures at all; many of the characteristics we associate with certain outgroups are not exactly unique to their cultures either • Minimalist Group Paradigm ◦ groups created on the basis of an arbitrary characteristic ◦ no one gets to know anyone else in either group ◦ you have to give money to in-group/ out-group members ◦ result: people gave their group members more money RELATIVELY than the other group • Defining Characteristic: PCA[Primary CategorizingAttribute] ◦ single attribute ◦ what we associate all other attributes with ◦ can be innate or arbitrary (ex. green star on stomach) ◦ applies to all situations ▪ lets us know who is in our group or not • who to help/approach and who to avoid • guaranteed psychological support • adaptive advantage: relying on only ONE defining characteristic ◦ ex. land; language; passport ◦ Paladino and Castello – PCAtest ▪ people have faster approach times to ingroup members and faster avoidance times to outgroup members ◦ why might we have a hard time identifying our PCA? ▪ so basic, it's out of our awareness ▪ cultures are so huge and complex we don't think of it ▪ undermine the richness of a culture to pick the PCAas an example ◦ MAKES AGROUPAGROUP ▪ categorizes ingroups and outgroups • doesn’t give info about what the identity means • Secondary Categorizing Attributes ◦ all the details of our group identity and group prototypes ◦ predicts a group being functional and existing over time ▪ details of collective identity • norms • collectively defined goals • values • customs • history ◦ characteristics relating to esteem ◦ can be distinct, doesn't HAVE to be • Normative Behaviours Start w/ a → Shared History → • Shared Values PCA and Emotion • Common Practices • Group Goals Lecture Four: 16 January • PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY ◦ general idea that human behavior is irrational ▪ assumes persons are irrational ▪ frustration/aggression (how it manifests) ▪ theAuthoritarian Personality • SELF-ESTEEM (irrational influence) ◦ individual: how positive/negative one feels about themselves ◦ groups: how does the group level I belong to effect my self-esteem? UNCONSCIOUS CONSCIOUS OUTGROUP SELF-ESTEEM SELF-ESTEEM ATTITUDES YES (+) YES (+) YES (+) NO (-) YES (+) NO (-) NO (-)
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 331

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.