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Lecture 9

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PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

Lecture 9 - Mischel Spotlight Effect - STUDY: T-shirt o people see them as having more impact + and – than others see themselves o people see them as more dominating of a conversation o correlation bt impact seen by self and impact seen by others  everyone is overestimating on average but is accurate on relative ranking Effects of Failure on Subsequent Performance - depend on whether the failure hits an important self definition - STUDY: Med students on competence problems dealing with patients o feedback that average score is 20 and self score is 12 o led to believe that performance is relevant to be a successful to be a doctor or not o mental concentration task: related to doing well in med school or not o results  failure feedback: performed better on relevant task, performed worse on irrelevant task No Fdbk Failure Test Relevant Relevant 419 461 Irrelevant 400 350 Chapter 4 - Ross o aggressive behavior of child on play ground cannot predict his behavior later in the day o extreme behaviors don't occur often * o more likely the child would be average o BUT if to guess 3 children’s aggressiveness: Tom very, Dick average, and Harry not aggressive on the playground  Tom is 5X more likely than Harry to be more aggressive  but 4.5% chance that Tom will be aggressive  Harry’s chance to be aggressive is <1%  probably neither will be aggressive although Tom is more LIKELY to be aggressive than Harry o if one is extreme based on the distribution than the rest of the children, the child who is highest aggression will at least show 1 aggressive behavior in 10 situations where as the child least aggressive won’t be aggressive in any of the 10 situations Walter Mischel - Cognitive affective system theory of personality o situations reliably trigger behavioral responses o cognitive and affective units mediate the situation to behavior response - Interpersonal situations o peer approaches o peer teases o adult praises o adult warns o adult punishes - Cross situational consistency o across situation: how verbally aggressive across psych situations o better approach: look at situations *  e.g. peer teasing consistently lead to aggression while others consistently lead to non aggressive behavior - STUDY o summer camp: 84 children, 77 adult observers, 14~28 observers/child, 167 hours of observation/child o result: consistent method of responding to peer teasing Cognitive Affective Mediating Units - encoding: categorize - expectancies: efficacy and outcome - affects - goals and values: desired and aversive - competencies and plans-scrip, pot behavior - units influence each other to reach a personal understanding of a situation Individual Differences -
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