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Lecture 2

ANTHROP 1AB3 Lecture 2: RRC final exam review

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Karen Mc Garry

Final Exam Review We are all Neighbours: - Ethnic nationalism develops over a short period of time (3 months during bosnian conflict) - Ethnicity is defined primarily in terms of religion in this movie - Nationalism as “imagined community”- culturally constructed - Imagined community​ (benedict anderson): even in the absence of face to face interactions, a sense of community is culturally constructed by forced such as mass media ● War is only 15 miles away ● A schools closed, kids are still ● Hear the booms and shelling from a playing, but people send their kids distance= windows shake away to safety ● Effects of war is shown in a few ● ⅔ muslim , ⅓ catholic in the village weeks between families + ● All the women in the village are neighbours became enemies trying to maintain a normal life + the ● The bakery + wood cutting families men go to war village is still peaceful ● Bosnia’s in between serbia + croatia ● Croats, serbs and muslims live (common enemy is the serbs) together in Bosnia ● War began 5 years ago? ● Worried the situation will change ● They gather + watch the news on tv ● When she hears firings in the ● Women gather in the mosque to distance, she acts oblivious pray for the souls of the dead ● Waits to be called up, every 10 days ● Everyone was slaughtered + killed, + he gets called into the army to serve everything was set on fire ● They're wondering if their presidency ● Not allowed to bury the dead will reach agreement but they don't ● Croat vs muslim war firings is getting think so because they can never closer satisfy karadzic + if he agrees to ● All the neighbours have to guard what they want that's bad their homes together ● Catholic house's were intact + ● People feel pressured to declare muslim house's had been shelled, whether they're muslims (bosniaks) burned, etc. or croat (catholic) or serbs (orthod.) Race + Racism ● What is social stratification? Kinds of stratification/hierarchy? ○ Social stratification:​ unequal acces​ )​ wealth or economic resources (value) 2) ​power (persuade + control) ​3)​ prestige (respect + honour) ■ Intensifies as communities become large, develop agriculture + develop the necessity for occupational specialization (dif jobs) ■ Some say stratified societies are natural ■ Capitalism increased forms of social hierarchies like CLASS ● Class ○ Class​: perceptions of an individual's status in society (hierarchy) ■ Culturally constructed ■ based on economic criteria ; ■ Achieved (earn status) or ascribed (born with it) ■ the american dream (​MYTH​) ○ Reinforce inequality- police, educational system, etc. ○ Max Weber​- based on things like educational attainment, occupation, religious or spiritual affiliation, economics ○ Occupations-​ we value jobs after uni + brain power more than hands on jobs, this contributes to stratification ● What is race and racism? - ​Franz Boas ○ Race​: presumed hereditary characteristics of a group of people ■ A ​culturally​/socially ​constructed​ identity ■ Imagined as an ​ASCRIBED​ status ■ Used as a form of social stratification + legal classification ○ Racism​: discrimination + mistreatment of particular racial group's ■ Oppressive structure of inequality + power that arise when certain groups are afforded greater legitimacy or value than others ■ Societal or systemic problem ■ Can be overt +/or embedded ● Biology + race; scientific racism – Dr. Ana Duggan + read text V CAREFULLY ○ Scientific racism:​ Use of supposedly “scientific” theories, tests + procedures to support racist cultural agendas ■ 5 racial categories 1) Africanus 2) Americanus 3) Asiaticus 4) Europeanus ○ Samuel george morton​- believed that a person's intelligence was based on the size of their skull, the bigger the smarter (whites at top, hindus, etc at bottom) ○ Stephen jay gould​ proved him wrong cuz morton just confirmed his bias + discovered that there was no dif between the skulls ○ Examples of linking race with science ■ Rushton- ​wrote “race, evolution + behaviour: a life history perspective” ● Blacks (low everything) -> whites -> orientals (highest) ■ Eugenics (FG- Francis Galton) ● Founder Sir Francis Galton, identifies most desireable traits ● Hereditary​ ​ nius ● “Improvement of the human gene pool” ● Ex: hitler + the Nazi party; Canada- some provinces supported sterilization of certain group's ■ John Labruzzo- ​Former republican state level rep for louisiana ○ Race as a cultural construction ■ Conrad Kottak- race in Brazil; colourism ■ Susie phipps- louisiana ○ Carl linnaeus​- father of taxonomy + scientific racism ○ Samuel george morton​- compared capacities of skulls w dif racial group's ○ Stephen jay gould​- mismeasure of man ● Philippe Bourgois- (B- Barrio) cultural anthropologist ○ Fieldwork among Puerto rican crack dealers in East Harlem ○ Social stratification/hierarchy based on ​race + class ○ How white privilege + class in NYC works to keep whites in power + authority ○ Drug economy- means of achieving respect due to the lack of “cultural capital” ○ Street and inner city people ○ Seek income + identity + meaning in their life through careers on the street ○ Intra community crime- drug abuse + violence: unemployment, personal anxiety ○ “Personal failure” is driven by race ○ Cultural reproduction theory has great potential for bringing light to the interaction between resistance + marginalization ○ Culture of resistance- violence, crime, drugs, it's oppression + self destruction ○ Regular displays of violence are necessary for success in the underground economy- essential for credibility + prevention of being ripped off ○ Opulent survival without a visible means of support- success ○ More women are taking part in the underground economy ● White privilege – features of white privilege, examples ○ White privilege​: white people have access to more power, authority + privileges than non white people (african canadians, aboriginals, etc.) ■ Form of embedded racism where whites are granted power, prestige, etc. ■ Ex- stephen harper- old stock canadians ● embedded versus overt racism ■ ^^^ Called structural ​racism​ (friders + gadacz) because it's ​EMBEDDED in canadian social institutions (as opposed to ​OVERT-​ prejudice + discrimination) ■ Embedded racism is sometimes an outgrowth of colonialism ■ Brazil ■ Indian reserve​- internal colony, canadians: colonizing, aboriginal: colonized ● They have skin whitening creams ● McIntosh article- white privilege is the ex. Of ​embedded​ racism ○ Considered a classic by anti racist educators ○ Whiteness is both ​normative​ + ​unmarked ○ Affords white people with unearned advantages in society ○ Used in workshops + classes thru the US + canada ○ Men are unwilling to say they're overprivileged, even though they may say that women are disadvantaged ○ They say they'll help fix the status of women, but won't support lessening theirs ○ Denials amount to taboos-men denying they gain smthg from our disadvantages ○ Denials protect male privilege from being lessened, ended or fully acknowledged ○ There is unacknowledged male privilege ○ Hierarchies in our society are interlocking = phenomenon of white privilege, which was denied + protected ○ White people are taught that racism is something which puts others at a disadvantage + they're taught not to see one of its results, white privilege puts you at an advantage ○ Whites are taught to not recognize white privilege + same with men ○ invisible package of unearned assets that you can cash in daily, but you're meant to stay oblivious ○ Invisible weightless knapsack of special stuff- visas, passports, etc. ○ Describing white privilege makes one newly accountable ○ Mens oppressiveness was unconscious ○ Women of colour say white women they encounter are oppressive ○ White people are given no training to be an oppressor ○ Whites are taught to see themselves as individ’s whose moral state depends on their moral will ○ Elizabeth Minnich​: whites are taught to think of their lives as morally neutral, normative, average + ideal, so that when we work to benefit others, this is seen as work which will allow “them“ to be more like “us” ○ Factors​: skin colour, religion, ethnic status, geo location, etc. (all intertwined) ■ Take active forms which ​we can see​ + embedded forms which ​we don't ○ Elusive + fugitive subject ○ If you face it, you give up the ​myth of meritocracy ​(equal opportunity exists) ○ Skin colour is an asset for any move you want to make if you're educated ○ Being white protects you from hostility, distress + violence ○ Individual acts can palliate but cannot end these problems ○ To redesign these issues we need to acknowledge what we don't see ○ Key political tool- silences + denials Violence + conflict ● Emerges when a sense of ORDER in society is perceived to be under threat ○ Order​: varied ways in which society's maintain a conflict free, status quo ● Anthrops believe that collective acts of aggres
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