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March 5.docx

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Tracy Prowse

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March 5, 2013
Last Class
Missing Notes for 26, 28, and Monday’s class
Homo habilis (~2.8-1.8mya)-evidence of stone tools; slightly bigger brain
Homo erectus (~1.8-0.4 mya) big brains; more elaborate tools; intentional use of fire;
Intentional use of fire, modifying environment
o Tools with fine detailed retouching, intentionally choosing a particular stone and then
working along it; someone sat there and refine this tool to make a pointed edge
Homo sapiens (~200000)-archaic forms, anatomically modern homo sapiens (130 000 ya)
Hypotheses about Neanderthal Morphology
Very large nasal apertures, stalky, heavily muscledwhy?
Adaptation to cold climate (glacial period) big nose warms up air
Robust crania because cranium reflects ‘industrial use of teeth’
Isolation from gene flow with other contemporaneous populations because of glacial climate
o Specialized offshoot
Combination of all three
The idea that Neanderthal used teeth as tools, implies that they didn’t have a tool technology but they
did: Mousterian tool industry
-refine edge of tool
How closely related are we to Neanderthals?
One group says inter-breeding with Homo sapiens and eventually died off
One group says totally isolated and we evolved separately
-they likely could speak; capable
-same brain size
-image has changed over time less the idea of brutish Neanderthal, that are slow witted and stooped
Relationship of Neanderthals and Modern Humans?
Most humans have a little Neanderthal in them
60% of Neanderthal genome sequenced
1-4% of nuclear DNA is shared
o Indicates that they eventually died off but inter-bred with Homo sapiens
Main Points
All models support the idea that our origins lie in Africa
Debates centre on timing and process
New DNA evidence suggests that modern humans have a bit of Neanderthal DNA
New fossil discoveries permit revised/new interpretation
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