2bb3- chapter 1: the chemical basis of life. Biochemistry- reductionism science; breaking up into parts to explain a whole. Most abundant: c, n, o, h; ca, p, k, s, cl, na, mg. Biological molecules: c, h, n, o, p, s. Major types of biomolecules in cells: amino acids, amino group (nh2) and carboxylic acid group (cooh, acidic conditions become nh3. + and coo: carbohydrates, simple carbs (monosaccharides): (ch2o)n where n >/ 3, nucleotides, lipids. 5 c sugar + n-containing ring (a, t, c, g) + 1+ phosphate groups. Cells require energy for all functions of living, growing and reproducing. Laws of thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed, energy can be transferred from one form to another r. Enthalpy, h- equivalent to the heat content of the system (j/mol) Entropy, s- how much energy is dispersed within the system (j/[mol(k)]) Enthalpy and entropy g = h t( s) Hafter hbefore = h < 0: release of heat to the.