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Kim Dej

September 10 , 2012 Biology 2F03: Fundamentals of Ecology Chapter 2 - Life on Land Question - why horses and cattle help restore Guanacaste forest of Costa Rica: horses and cattle eat seeds and fertilize the soil to restore the forest Life on Land - Why does Guanacaste tree produce many large fruit that fall on the ground next to it? Question - What is the most obvious foundation of life on land: soil Life on land: soils – the foundation - recall (1 year): climate defines biomes, the ‘shape’ of vegetation - soils in turn greatly affect other aspects (roots, water, nutrients, …) - soils typically form layers (horizons) reflecting a range of physical and biological processes:  O or LF: organic  A  B  C Soil basics - organic, litter on top, fine litter deeper (pollen, dead organisms) - A: mineral soil, some organic matter. Clay, iron, aluminum, silicates and soluble organics leach out gradually - B: depositional. Materials leached from A settle in B. deposits may form banding patterns. Think of winter shoes showing salt bands - C: weathered parent material; rock fragments - Move from particulate to solution Soils - remember:  soil horizons result from interactions between climate, vegetation, animal activities, and geology. Horizons change gradually  any pattern you see reflects recent (scale of 10 -10 yrs) history  change vegetation, climate, or animals and the soil will change; differently in different habitats – but how? Questions - from 1M03 you know what causes winters and summers as well as deserts and wet areas: earth’s
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