Readings for Midterm – Question or two per article. Up to but not including
Genetic for studying energy balance. Up to 157.
Broad general concept, important aspect.
MCQ, fill in the blanks!
Organization of organisms is traces to the functions of central plots
Vertebrates – traces to microprocesses – where all the allocation aspects
are, all take place in a very small primitive region fo the brain called
Hypothalamus – different nuclei.
Top diagram – hypothalamus connected directly to pituitary.
Median amenam ?
Very highly conserved aspects
Neuroendocrine – Allocation Regulation: Hypothalamic Microprocessor
Regions with neuronal body for secretion of hormones as well as the inter
neurons connecting things up
Major things – poituitary gland
Clock – needed for signaling
The PVN – main site for stress hormone access
The central clock is the master clock of the body but a lot of what it does is
carry the stress hormone. By regulating adrenal outpit, clock talks to rest
of the tissues through the stress hormone access.
Growth hormone access – float a bit more, doesn’t have quiet the same
type of connections, has some homeostatic ability
ARC – growth hormone regulatory center.
Negative interaction between PVB and Arc nucleus – will find sub nuclei,
are antaingosit. Some nuclei hooked up to the PVN.
Feeding regulation – archaic nucleus in regulation of food intake
Microprocessor – runs all processes of body
All control systems for regulation, food deposition, sleeping, various kinds
of blood pressures, all are controlled by the hypothalamus. All decisions
get made here
Clock hooked up to the life cycle, allows the organism to spaceship itself
so its in line with the day and night cycle
Need to have light sensors, so it will be retina of the eye. Actual sensors
for the clock don’t see light, don’t transmit vision. Transmit particular
wavelength but not involved in visual process. Have particular subset of
retinal systems dedicated to clock system. Thos sisngla stransmitted
through retina – retinohypothalamic track – goes directly to the
hypothalamus Other animals – clock is not necessarily located in a nucleus. Clock in
drosophila similar to ours
Birds – retina can have a clock function, important for master control
Every tissue in body has a clock, those clocks function in tissue in tissue
Modern butterfly – clock in its antenna – used for allowing animal to tell
time it is because of angle of the sun, circadian daylight
Honeybees use similar system – when finding where food is, go back to
hive, do this waggle dance, allows them to communicate to other bees.
Various kinds of components of the clocks
Clock genes? How does the clock work? How conserved are the
Nucleus itself represented by grey area – genes producing protein. Two of
the big players are period genes, cryptochrome.
Ctyptochrome genes – in plants also, blue light receptors. Run various
kinds of responses in plants in photo responses. Precursor is bacterial. In
bacteria, precursor for these genes doesn’t do anything but repair DNA.
A lot of organisms – one of the reasons clock may hae hooked up to the
life signals. A lot of the organisms exposed to UV light, some will migrate
to water pond. If they got exposed, then have to take care of the damage
A lot of theories suggesting – evolution of the clock in early stages was
largely for defense against UV light
These genes still operating in every species of the planet maybe not in
The Mammalian Clock
Chyrmotchrom and period make their own proteins. Proteins dimerize
in the cytoplasm, produced in the cytoplasm. Have to move back into the
nucleus. Nuclear cytoplasmic transport. Transport system for nuclear
cytoplasmic transporter are actively involved in clock fun