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February 9th lecture .docx

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McMaster University
David Rollo

Readings for Midterm – Question or two per article. Up to but not including Genetic for studying energy balance. Up to 157.  Broad general concept, important aspect.  MCQ, fill in the blanks! Figure 10-12  Organization of organisms is traces to the functions of central plots  Vertebrates – traces to microprocesses – where all the allocation aspects are, all take place in a very small primitive region fo the brain called hypothalamus  Hypothalamus – different nuclei.  Top diagram – hypothalamus connected directly to pituitary.  Median amenam ?  Very highly conserved aspects Neuroendocrine – Allocation Regulation: Hypothalamic Microprocessor  Regions with neuronal body for secretion of hormones as well as the inter neurons connecting things up  Major things – poituitary gland  Clock – needed for signaling  The PVN – main site for stress hormone access  The central clock is the master clock of the body but a lot of what it does is carry the stress hormone. By regulating adrenal outpit, clock talks to rest of the tissues through the stress hormone access.  Growth hormone access – float a bit more, doesn’t have quiet the same type of connections, has some homeostatic ability  ARC – growth hormone regulatory center.  Negative interaction between PVB and Arc nucleus – will find sub nuclei, are antaingosit. Some nuclei hooked up to the PVN.  Feeding regulation – archaic nucleus in regulation of food intake  Microprocessor – runs all processes of body  All control systems for regulation, food deposition, sleeping, various kinds of blood pressures, all are controlled by the hypothalamus. All decisions get made here Figure 5.24  Clock hooked up to the life cycle, allows the organism to spaceship itself so its in line with the day and night cycle  Need to have light sensors, so it will be retina of the eye. Actual sensors for the clock don’t see light, don’t transmit vision. Transmit particular wavelength but not involved in visual process. Have particular subset of retinal systems dedicated to clock system. Thos sisngla stransmitted through retina – retinohypothalamic track – goes directly to the hypothalamus  Other animals – clock is not necessarily located in a nucleus. Clock in drosophila similar to ours  Birds – retina can have a clock function, important for master control  Every tissue in body has a clock, those clocks function in tissue in tissue specific manner  Modern butterfly – clock in its antenna – used for allowing animal to tell time it is because of angle of the sun, circadian daylight  Honeybees use similar system – when finding where food is, go back to hive, do this waggle dance, allows them to communicate to other bees. Figure 2  Various kinds of components of the clocks  Clock genes? How does the clock work? How conserved are the components?  Nucleus itself represented by grey area – genes producing protein. Two of the big players are period genes, cryptochrome. Table  Ctyptochrome genes – in plants also, blue light receptors. Run various kinds of responses in plants in photo responses. Precursor is bacterial. In bacteria, precursor for these genes doesn’t do anything but repair DNA.  A lot of organisms – one of the reasons clock may hae hooked up to the life signals. A lot of the organisms exposed to UV light, some will migrate to water pond. If they got exposed, then have to take care of the damage  A lot of theories suggesting – evolution of the clock in early stages was largely for defense against UV light  These genes still operating in every species of the planet maybe not in caribou The Mammalian Clock  Chyrmotchrom and period  make their own proteins. Proteins dimerize in the cytoplasm, produced in the cytoplasm. Have to move back into the nucleus. Nuclear cytoplasmic transport. Transport system for nuclear cytoplasmic transporter are actively involved in clock fun
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