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Roman Triumphal Procession.docx

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McMaster University
Spencer Pope

Roman Triumphal Procession 11/26/2013 4:03:00 PM  Triumph refers to procession held to honour a victorious returning general following his campaign  The tradition developed from the Late Republican period and continues across the Imperial Period  Triumphal rituals: party gathered on Campus Martius outside sacred boundary of the city, where procession set off a prescribed route, let through the “Triumphal Gate” through the Forum, to the Capitoline Hill 1. Procession of the Spoils  Spoils (spolia) were carried on wagons  Animals were barbequed and divided through to the citizens  Captives in chains (cf. experience in arena) 2. Procession of the Victorious General  Leading officers and Roman citizens behind 3. Parading Soldiers  Procession culminated under temporary arch constructed in Roman Forum; crossing through the arch was a sign of victory which eventually stone/concrete arches develop as a permanent architectural type = 3 bays, sculpture in relief, inscription in attic story Arch of Titus  Dedicated after AD 81 by Domitian, successor of Titus  Commemorates victories in Jewish War AD 70  Because its new, it was not put up right away but 11 years after the victory  Arch has 1 bay (as opposed to 3)  Fornices, inscription on attic level (at the top)  Sculpture o Victories in the spandrels and a frieze below the attic level o Reminder of others to this persons status o Inter passage way  Spoils procession  Ferculum: a litter for displaying spoils of Jewish Wars, including the Menorah  Triumph panel  Snapshot of the arch’s history, the emperor marching in on chariot with 4 horses carrying him  resembles prestige-ness  Copilot on the chariot is the woman with wings  Another woman infront of the horses  depiction of Roma (guiding spirit of the city) leading the emperor in, IT’S NOT A VICTORY FOR ONE BUT A VICTORY FOR ALL Aqueduct  Aqueducts, drawing water into the city  They work because water works its way lower to its destination  Moved from the hills to the city  Cut a channel through hillsides into the bedrock, so there is a constant slope of water  Monumentalized to make the … Esquiline Hill: Porta Maggiore o 2 arches, rather than 3 o Columns adjacent to the arches themselves o Generally the same structure, pediment in the center  Greek form of design o Gateway into Rome Esquiline Hill o Carries 2 aqueducts: Aqua Claudia and Aqua Anio Nuovo o Travertine stone  Not smooth, rusticated style with rough finished blocks “Good old days” (Claudius succeeded Caligula o Pre-corruption, Republican values, direct, strong, austere (opposite of decadent) Antoninus Pius  Portraiture follows style of Hadrian: bearded, curly hair, undercut with drill  Incised eyes  Portrait was not updates with age (contra verastic tradition)  C. AD 140  Lines on face were seen as aged and signs of wisdom  Built a funerary monument before his death  Column of Antoninus Pius o Shaft = no relief (in contrast to Trajan) o Base = 1) Dedication, 2) Apotheosis (taking sanctions of heaven) of Antoninus and Faustina, 3) Decursio = ritual circling of funeral pyre o (Two identical scenes on opposite sides of the monument) o Portraits of Antoninus Pius and Faustina the Elder on wings of uncertain divinity (Classicizing style) Marcus Aurelius  Ascended at the age of 40  AD 161-180  Has a coin  Portrait of this guy o Contemplative, even worried o Individual “ethos” o Veristic style  Equestrian statue now in Capitoline Museum in Rome o Not in armor (the dress of a soldier but in the toga, the dress of a statesman) o Extended hand is a sign of Clementia = Clemency toward enemy  says “spare the enemy, following person, whoever is there”  Campidoglio on Capitoline  Column of Marcus Aurelius o Spiral frieze: M.A.’s campaigns vs. the Germans o Dedicated AD 180 – 185 o At the Piazza Colonna, outside of the president’s office o More battle scenes, fewer preparation = more immediate, more violent scenes  Romans marching in with shields and weapons, then Romans sacking the German towns, domination  Hardly something to be proud of (taking women and children out of their homes) b/c death and battle isn’t glorious Commodus  AD 180 – 193  Son of Marcus Aurelius  No interest in foreign policy or in protecting the borer of the Roman empire  Considered himself the incarnation of Herakles (seen
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