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HUMAN SEX Chapter 15.doc

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McMaster University
Tulsie Raghubir

Chapter 15 SEXUAL VARIATIONS NORMAL VS DEVIANT SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR • Statistical norm: – Rare or unusual sexual behaviour -> abnornal – Appears value free as its based on frequency of behaviour, not sociall acceptable • Also consider if it deviates from a social norm • What may be considered the norm in one culture may not be in another • Terminology – Deviant and abnormal are confusing, prefer atypical variations THE PARAPHILIAS • Atypical patterns of sexual arousal or behaviour that become problematic in the eyes of the individual or society – Sexual arousal in response to unusual stimuli (children, nonconsenting persons, nonhuman objects, pain or humiliation) • Recurrent urges acted on or are distressing to individual • Urges are insistent, demanding or compulsory • Vary in severity: – Function in absence of unusual stimuli – Resot to behaviour in times of stress – Preoccupied with thoughts and fantasies, unable to become aroused without stimulus • Debate: – Are they harmless and victimless? – Therapists should work towards eliminating but to learn how to express behaviour in a healthy manner – Prevelance unknown Fetishism • Inanimate object elicits sexual arousal – Clothing (panties, bras, lingerie, stockings, gloves, shoes, boots) – Materials (rubber, leather, silk, fur) • Some act on urges (masturbate while stroking item) some don’t • Partialism – Excessively aroused by particular body part (feet, breasts, buttocks) – Some touch women in public • Most are harmless, private and involve masturbation or incorporation into coitus, but some may commit burglaries to acquire objects Breast Fetishism • Sexual interest in female breasts • Currently common in american and japanese culture • Fetish can vary (size of breast, nipples, lactation, mammary intercourse leading to a pearl necklace) • Why do you think one may have this fetish? Foot Fetish • Sexually aroused by touching, licking, kissing, getting a “footjob” • Shoes fetish • Crush fetishism – Desire to be others crush small creatures (insects, mammals, reptiles, fruit, etc.) Other Fetishes? - Axillary intercourse (putting penis in others armpit) - Agalmatophilia (sexual attraction to statuses or dolls > transformed into doll) - Growing tails (watching women in the standing position -> takes pleasure when stool hasn’t separated from anus and resembles a tail) - Maiesiophillia (pregnancy fetish) Transvestism • Cross dresses to achieve sexual arousal or gratification, may be troubled by persistent urges to cross dress • Most are married and otherwise masculine • May overlap with transsexualism but it isn't the same – Transsexuals motivated by autogynephilia (sexually stimulated by fantasies that own bodies are female) • Origins & Patterns: – Birth order (most likely eldest child or only children) – Closer relationships with mother – “Petticoat punishment” humiliated by being dressed in girls attire • Behaviour – Wearing a single garment -> dresses, makeup, wigs, mannerisms – private affair – Kept a secret from wives, some wives permit behaviour, but end up tolerant but unsupportive and more concerned about children finding out Exhibitionism (“flashing”) • Persistent powerful urges and sexual fantasies that involve exposing genitals to unsuspecting strangers for arousal and gratification • Known data gathered from apprehended men or those treated by mental health professionals (biased) • Begins before 18, urges as soon as early adolescence, declines by 40 • Psychological consequences – Feel violated, recurrent images/nightmares, fearful of going out alone (Exacerbated for young children) • Evidence: – Attempt to assert masculinity – Shy, dependent, passive, lacking in sexual/social skills, inhibited • Preferred victims – Girls, young women who they can drive or walk up to and expose themselves -> almost always have erection some ejaculate • Forms (definitions?): – Gwen Jacobs (Ontario Court of Appeal -> legal for women to go topless – Internet (girls gone wild) – Couples Obscene Telephone Calling (Telephone Scatologia) • Making of obscene phone calls where they are aroused by shocking • Patterns: – Some limit to obscenities, or sexual overtures, others breathe heavily – – • Usually a socially inadequate heterosexual male who has difficulty forming intimate relations with women – Safety/anonymity shield him from rejection – Shock/fright instill feelings of power and control • Difficult to track – – Voyeurism (“peeping tom”) • Strong repetitive urges and related sexual fantasies of observing unsuspecting strangers who are naked, disrobing, or engaged in sexual relations – Typically doesn’t seek sexual relations, but may masturbate while “peeping” or afterwards – Most are nonviolent, but some commit violent crimes (assault and sexual assault) – Those who break into and enter home or tap on windows to gain attention of victims -> dangerous Sexual Masochism • Desire or need for pain or humiliation to enhance sexual arousal so that gratification may be attained – Bound, flogged, humiliated, spanked, whipped, perform humiliating acts (walking on all fours, licking boots/shoes, vulgar insults), urinating and/or defecating on recipient) – Some prefer particular type of pain others an assortment – Don’t enjoy other types of pain not connected with sexual practice • Only paraphilia found with frequency among women • Association of arousal with mildly painful stimuli is common – • Bondage – Ritual restraint (shackles), blindfolded (sensory bondage) • Hypoxyphilia – Enhance sexual arousal, usually during masturbation, by becoming deprived of oxygen • Sexual Sadism • Sexually aroused by inflicting pain or humiliation on others – Willing partners although some stalk and attack nonconsenting victims (minority) • Sadomasochism – Mutually gratifying sexual interaction between consenting sex partners in which sexual arousal is associated with the infliction and receipt of pain or humiliation – Occasional S&M is common, problematic->becomes pathological • Subculture – S&M magazines (personal ads), clubs – Elaborate rituals involving dominance and submission “master and slave” – Types of pain: psychological & physical (erotic appeal from ritual) • Most avoid serious injury and dangerous partners – Assume either role but assuming both = sadomasochists • Cause: – Physiologically able to experience heightened sexual arousal from receiving pain or inflicting it – Endorphins released which caused euphoria and well being Frotteurism (Mashing) • Recurrent, powerful sexual urges and related fantasies that involve rubbing against or touching a nonconsenting person – Exclusive among males who have difficulty f
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