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Department
Commerce
Course
COMMERCE 1BA3
Professor
Teal Mc Ateer
Semester
Winter

Description
*organizations are SOCIAL INVENTIONS, accomplishing COMMON GOALS through GROUP EFFORT. Organizations are composed of: 1. Social inventions WHO All organizations have people Culture eats strategy for breakfast Most efficient way to do something intended 2. Common goals WHAT Reasoning for existing 3. Group effort HOW OB – the study of conflict Ob consulting basics Who: social inventions What: to produce quality product or provide professional services How: group effort Interaction Coordination Teamwork What is ob Productivity Moderating/mediating factors Micro 1. Individuals working toward goals Mezzo 2. Teams, groups, departments interacting to work toward goals Macro 3. Whole organizations PETS – People Environment Technology Structure Genetics H. Ford “whether you think you can or can’t, you’re probably right.” OB -understand behaviours -predict behaviours -explain behaviours -manage behaviours *OB Consulting Tools Internal consulting and external consulting Situation + Thinking=Response (Behaviour) OB 1. The attitudes (thinking) and behaviours (response) of individuals (micro) and groups (macro) in organizations. 2. Attempt to UNDERSTAND, PREDICT, EXPLAIN AND MANAGE how people behave at works 3. Thermostat Analogy 1. Current state (take the temperature) 2. Desired state 3. Measure magnitude of gap 4. Recommendations to close the gap The evolution of OB Today we are at the contingency/systems approach No best way to manage Mgt style depends on the demands of the situation Non prescriptive view 1 conflict is inevitable 2 uncertainty is for sure 3 complexity is a given (iceberg) trends facing mgrs today (ethics, transparency, authenticity, integrity) – are you who you say you are diversity mgt CI (cultural intelligence) Biggest challenge team dynamics and synergy building employee organization relationships managing up, out, across, down focus on quality, speed and flexibility talent mgt focus on corporate social responsibility perception managers must understand how to interpret data, signals, order it, and assign meaning to it there are 3 elements how to interpret how to order it its meaning three cs investigation – approaches to motivation 1 content(there are four of them) all about needs/motives 2 (three cognitive approaches) s+t=r 3 contextual something in the environment Pavlov and skinner Manipulation in context Reinforcement theory Job design theory What can i do to you to get you to behave Timeline 1. Classical/Traditional views 2. Human Relations 3. Beyond Human Relations (The Human Resources Perspective) 4. Systems or Contingency Perspective Situational sensor (cameleon) In some situations need move left hand To read and sense situation, to know which managerial style to use Pay attention to demands on you to determine style to use Input/output Input – transformation process – output Manager needs to read environment accurately / S+T=R / how to respond (cameleon) CYCLICAL 1. Classical/Traditional views Early 1900s Highly siloed (no intercommunication) Power is in the hands of few (decision making centralized) Bureaucracy Early to mid 1900s Max weber Strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, And selection and promotion based on technical competence Bureaucratic way to think Everything should be planned, coordinated and controlled Avoid mistakes by not permitting people to think on their own The problem: this is nonhumanistic Lack of thought, emotion, creativity Scientific Management Also early 1900s Frederick Taylor To improve worker behaviour and prevent inefficiencies on shop floor Known as the Time and Motion Man = efficiency Use of careful research to determine degree of specialization Designed work through observation Timed each phase with a stop watch Goal is quantity (over quality) Invented Piece Rate Wage System (Piece Rate Pay) More money for more widgets produced He believed pay was only motivator to employee Human Relations Movement Researcher Elton Mayo in Hawthorne Studies These studies contributed to the end of scientific management and the begin of Human Relations And the start of Organizational Behaviour Studied the effect of improved ambient conditioning through lighting Productivity improved due to better ambience But the control group improved as well, because they felt more involved ..so they worked harder Illumination study: New understanding of the brain of worker Felt important Were doing something to improve the plant Notion of paying attention to people and their thoughts Aka. The Hawthorne Effect Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Triangle Five: self actualization Four: self esteem Three: affiliation Two: safety/security (shelter and job) One: physiological (food and water) 3-5= higher needs 1-2= lower needs Important to pay attention to needs and thoughts You can’t work on next stage until the lower order needs are filled **notion of perpotency: the one above is only potent when the lower stage is filled Theory X versus Theory Y Doug McGregor Theory x: Managers are responsible for organizing, directing, and controlling (like Classical) Thought that the average worker works as little as possible and is stupid, therefore manager must control Theory Y Human relations view Workers want to contribute to productivity, if only given the chance by management Today Contingency/Systems Approach Not everyone here might be at the Human Resources Perspective Human Resources Perspective (Beyond Human Relations) Workers participate Ie Japanese management (Theory J) Dr Ouchi Total Quality Management (TQM) (trying to achieve continuous improvement in the quality of an organizations’ products or services Pushing decision making down and managers accept this Ie workers stopped line when a suggestion was innovated Participative autonomous thinking and managing Jan 17 Continuum of management approaches Trad/class – max weber – bureaucratic thinking Human relations – hawthorne – employees could contribute – Elton mayo Brad taylor – time and motion guy Maslow – hierarchy of needs – 5 – lower order higher order Human resources pers – beyond human relations Japanese school – dr ouchi – if you give ppl opps to contribute to productivity will increase their wellbeing Contingency/systems pers- 1,2,3 – input, output, Define ability to situationaly sense Perception model – 11 cues Before we judge, we should Consistency, distinctiveness, consensus Assign meaning or cause to behaviour-attribut Internal – dis Externational – situational 7. projection 8. implicit personality theories A sideline theory is called causal linkages U associate actions with something Extention of implicit personality Something that must go together..ie shaking doorknob after locking it 9. primacy The tendency of a perceiver to rely on early cues or impression First impressions 10. recency 11. reliance on central traits Selection To connect If happening, need to resteer interview **assign 1 Give two examples of each error Examples of perceptions in workplace Trust building can be increased or decreased by perceptions CI and EI Ability vs personality Micro.. Ability: what a person is capable of doing Current skill set, core competencies Personality prescriptive view (left side) - Classical View View people/organization as rational Intended strategy Plan/coordinate Set in ways Non prescriptive manager (right side) Mgr will expect conflict Expect uncertainty Expect complexity (remember iceberg) Organization is like an iceberg If you don’t know what’s happening below the water line, you’ll sink Sublimal but most powerful (underwater line) Week 2 OB * Perception Interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment The study of perception Managers must understand how to interpret data (signals), order it and assign meaning to it Three elements to perception How to interpret, how to order, its meaning Components of perception Perceiver, target, situation *social identity theory a) ppl (perceivers) form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories (situation) aka: how do i want to represent myself? b) people form perceptions of others based on their memberships in social categories do we have objectivity in our assessment? The perceptual process 1 environmental stimuli (inputs) 2 observation (feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting) 3 perceptual selection (there is a limit to what will be perceived) 4 *perceptual organization/construction (construct a reality) 5 Interpretation (assign a meaning) *Bruner’s Model of the Perceptual Process – 7 steps 1 new stimuli (unfamililar target encourtered – ie new coworker) 2 use all senses (openness to target cues – ie search for info) 3 paid attention to familiarties/school (familiar cues encountered – ie coworker is Mac grad) 4 Construction (target categorized – ie good man with good potential) 5 attention/selection (cue selectivity – poor performance is ignored) 6 construction (categorizatioin strengthened – coworker is still good man with good potentional 7 action steps/intrepretation * Attribution – explain people’s behaviours The process by which CAUSES OR MOTIVES are ASSIGNED TO EXPLAIN people’s behaviours Assigning a meaning or cause to behaviour Internal attribution – dispostional attributions Perception that outcomes are due to personality or intellect rather than situation or enviro Ie he’s lazy External attribution – situational attributions Perception that outcomes are due to situation or enviro rather than the person Ie he’s lucky Attribution cues cues that guide our decisions as to whether we should attribute the behaviour to dispositional or situational causes 1. consistency cues – does the person engage in the behaviour regularily and consistently? Info about an employees performance over time 2. Consensus cues – do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to the person? Allows mgr to make comparisons across all employees 3. Distinctiveness cues – does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations, or is it distinctive to one situation? Info that allows mgr to compare across all tasks *Biases in attribution/perceptual errors 1. Fundamental attribution error Tendency to overemphasize dispositional (internal) explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations – jump to conclusion about human errors than situation 2. Actor-observer effect (cognitive dissonance) Propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviours differently 3. Self serving bias Tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures 4. Stereotyping Tendency to generalize about ppl in a social category and ignore variations among them – we tend to attribute characteristics to someone that typifies/represents a particular group to which they belong (could be an error in judgment that affects decision making) 5. Self fulfilling prophecy Occurs when our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations – you will act according to those presumptions “whether you think you can or can’t, you’re probably right” 6. halo one trait forms a general impression if we have a favourable or nonfavourable impression, we allow it to overshadow other characteristics 7. Projection Believing other people are similar to you Tendency for the perceiver to project their thoughts onto you 8. Implicit personality theories Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together Making up characteristics..ie if someone is dressed unkempt, with shirt out, he is does not pay attention to detail and therefore his work lacks 9. Primacy First impressions Tendency to rely on early cues 10. Recency Most recent information dominates perceptions Rely on recent cues 11. Reliance on central traits Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver Focus on similar traits special to us Examples of perceptions in the workplace Perceptions of trust and organizational support Perception and workforce diversity Valuing diversity; awareness of stereotyping *perception in the selection interview Attribution errors and contrast effect Can’t trust one interviewer only in room, more interviewers increase valid perception vs skewed perception because of perceptual errors Danger of perceptual errors *perception in a performance appraisal Rater errors; leniency, harshness, central tendency, similar to me effect (last two are the two biggest perceptual errors) *using either one of the perceptual models, explain why performance appraisals and
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