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Lecture 3

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Earth Sciences
Sherry Smith

Lecture 3 Formation of Parent Material Air moves fine materials Water can move heavier objects Ice moves largest objects Transportation and Deposition of Parent Material Floodplain Development Fast moving water can pick up heavier objects, as the water slows the heavier objects are deposited. These materials accumulate and create floodplains along the water table level. Unconsolidated Materials  Colluvial material o gravity  Eolian material o  Fluvial material o  Lacustrine Material o Moraines Glacial deposits create different soil formations and landscapes. This can be seen through the different types of vegetation or elevations. Also by taking a look at the soil profiles. Topography and Soil Properties On the top of a hill, there is a very simple soil profile. The soil is dryer up on top of elevations. At the bottom of the hill, the water that has travelled down and creates a much wetter soil, and also creates a more complex soil profile because of all the nutrients the water brings with it. Also on the hill, there is a lot of erosion from water, so the soil is very thin. Soil Formation Soil formation is a complex process that takes place over decades or centuries. The soil pedon is an open, dynamic system that allows additions, removals, transfers and transformations of energy and matter. Horizons develop as a result of numerous processes in the soil. These processes can be classified into the following categories: 1. Additions 2. Removals 3. Mixing 4. Translocations 5. Transformations Organic and mineral master horizons are further divided into distinct horizons by adding a suffix to master horizons. Soil pedons have distinct horizons and combinations. Soil Formation Soil Master Horizons A Horizon A mineral horizon formed at or near the surface in the zone of removal of materials in solution and suspension, or maximum in situ accumulation of organic carbon, or both. Net-loss horizon B Horizon A mineral horizon characterized by one or more of the following: 1. An enrichment in silicate clay, iron, aluminum, or humus 2. A prismatic or columnar
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