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Lecture 15

Lecture 15.pdf

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Earth Sciences
Sergei Basik

Climatic Cycles October 10 2013Lecture 15 1 Days to SeasonsEarths atmosphere is subject to cyclic changesMany cyclic changes have impact on weatherrelated hazardsHeat building during daytime hours can cause afternoon thunderstorms and tornadoes daily cycleMany climatecontrolled hazards are part of seasonal cyclesHurricanes occur from summer through fallTornadoes occur from spring through summer Earth is NOT closer to sun in summerTwo hemispheres of Earth experience summer at different timeso Earths axis of rotation is tilted 235 to plane of orbit around sunNorthern hemisphere receives maximum solar radiation when sun points directly at o235N at summer solsticeWarmest temperatures lag behind by about a monthtakes time to heat up land and waterOther observed cyclic changes in northern hemisphere climate may be explained byChanges in ocean currentsChanges in solar radiation caused by changes in Earths orbitChanges in atmospheric composition2 El NioOceanic circulation in equatorial Pacific usually is pushed westward by trade windsWarm surface water off Peru is blown westward and replaced by upwelling of cold deep nutrientrich water productive fisheriesEvery six years on average Pacific Ocean circulation reverses in pattern called El NioSubtropical trade winds weakenAir pressure rise in western PacificIncessant rain to west coasts of North and South AmericaFisheries suffer no cold nutrientrich upwelling water
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