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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 - Water and Finance.pdf

15 Pages

Earth Sciences
Course Code
Luc Bernier

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Water and Finance 1) What is the cause of the floods which occurred in China, this summer? a. Melting of mountain glaciers b. Release of water by dams c. Breach of dams d. Monsoonal (summer) rainfall Part 1 - Climate Change and Poverty  Extreme poverty: living on ≤U.S. $1.25/day or less = living on the edge of subsistence  It is estimated that currently 1.1 billion people live in extreme poverty in the world  These people have little to no chance of changing their condition on their own  For them every day is a fight to eat and live  Most of them live in the Indian subcontinent and sub-Saharan Africa  They also live in regions where water resources are hard pressed and are expected to see increases in their development  The graph illustrates the evolution of the proportion of people living in the state of extreme poverty in the Arab world from 1990 to 2005  In many countries there have been improvements during this 15 year span (Jordan) however there are countries where conditions have been worsening for example Yemen  East Asia and Pacific: 50% reduction since 1990 Climate Change, Diseases, & Poverty  Countries where extreme poverty dominates face widespread failing health and malnutrition, failed crops and loss of livelihood  The interaction with changing climate conditions only worsens this scenario  Countries where extreme poverty dominates are decimated by diseases such as malaria and HIV  In rural Africa some villages have only aging grandparents and children  Able bodied men and women are all dead from HIV infection Water and Finance  This map shows that the prevalence rate of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely high  Prevalence rate of HIV infection Environmental Change & Poverty  Changing environmental conditions have only worsened this cycle of extreme poverty  Droughts in Africa and in the Sahel have only made things worse  The interaction with changing climate conditions have increased the persistence of droughts  Deforestation for fuel and farming is widespread and increasing in these regions  The interactions between climate change and deforestation can lead to more disastrous consequences Impact of climate change in Haiti  Climate change has worsened the state of extreme poverty in Haiti, one of the poorest countries in the world  This have been triggered by the detonation of hillsides by attempts to get food, shelter and fuel  Hillside deforestation has left the country even more vulnerable to the devastation caused by hurricanes and the associated abundant rainfall  Because of deforestation rainfalls runoff without interruption to valleys and cause massive flooding  Aftermath of Hurricane Tomas, 2010 Vegetation Cover & Hydrological Feedbacks  This flow chart illustrates how destruction of vegetation cover leads to hydrological feedbacks that increase the impacts of climate filtration  At the start land that is laid bare is more vulnerable to rainwater as it runs on sun baked surfaces  The water enters dries cracks and washes away topsoil this leads to a loss of nutrients and organics Water and Finance  Leading to the loss of soil infertility the crops are dwindling in their yields and the soil losses intensify by intense droughts and storms Impacts of Droughts in the Sahel  Sahel: “desert fringe”  Since late 1960’s: rainfall has decreased between 30 and 40%  The impacts of droughts on the Sahel illustrate these feedbacks  The Sahel is a narrow bout acclimating zone  Which stretches across the entire southern margin of the Sahara desert  Since the last 1960’s rainfall has decreased between 30 and 40%  These is now less high intensity rain events  The period between 1968 and 1973 has been particularly devastating  Between 100 thousand and 250 thousand have died in a famine  This keeps reoccurring  The poor rains in 2005 were a factor in major famine that impacted 3 million people in Niger Water and Finance  Sahel: longest drought ever recorded  Rainfall variation from average  The drought experienced in the Sahel is the longest drought ever recorded  This graph shows the variation of rainfall since the start of the 20 century  Since the 1970’s rainfall has been abnormally low in the region  The question is whether this is part of a long term natural climate process or a new phenomenon as there is evidence that the region used to be a lot wetter a few centuries ago  The cause is likely natural and human made  It seems to be the combination of two factors  The human factor is the removal of vegetation which has increased the albedo of the region leading to more heat being absorbed leading to more desiccation of soils  This leads to a local diminution of rainfall which further reduces the vegetation cover Part 2 - Water and Urban Slums Water and Finance Water and Migration to Urban Slums  Expansion of shanty towns without centralized water facilities  They are no longer able to live off the land in rural areas  They are migrating to towns because subsistence farming is no longer an option/is not less viable  The problem is that they are trying to improve their economic status by moving to cities however, it is hard for them to obtain jobs so usually they are increasing to the number of people who are living in extreme poverty  Increases the number of people in extreme poverty  They often move to areas with no connections to municipal drinking systems or sewage systems The Cost of Buying Water  Vast differences between piped public water and water purchased from private vendors  Private vendors are companies who have water and are moving it town to town  People in the poor sectors have this as their only source of water  In Delhi they are buying mostly from private vendors at $5  Mandalay is even greater  These people already don’t have economic means and don’t have the money to pay for this water  Mumbai, India: ∼50% of population is living in slums o The implication of this is that approximately 25% of the population have to defecate outside o They have no sanitation at all o In Kenya people are using plastics bags for this o WHO: between 2004 and 2015 the number of people living in cities without sanitation will rise from 611 million to nearly 700 million Sanitation in the favelas Water and Finance  Largest slum: sewer overflow in the streets o Houses are infested by rats  946 favelas in Rio de Janeiro  25% of the population  These shanty towns are moving more and more on the outside  As the trees are removed for houses these surfaces become unstable and landslides result 2) To solve issues in access to water, in urban slums, which of the following is more likely to happen by mid-century? a. More small, private vendors b. More involvement by public utilities c. More involvement from large, private water companies d. People in slums will leave the cities 3) How is the availability of drinking water and access to sanitation going to change in urban slums, by mid-century? a. More drinking water, less sanitation b. More drinking water, more sanitation c. Less drinking water, less sanitation d. Less drinking water more sanitation Part 3 - International Aid Sanitation and International Aid  Little of the funds aim at improving water supplies and sanitation  There have been pledges from Canada and the US to, by 2015, reduce the number of people living in poverty  Aid mostly for irrigation projects and hydropower dams o These are constructed by western companies Debt and the End of Poverty  Burden has increased with loans for aid  Increasingly the model has been to provide aid for them to reorganize their infrastructure but they aren’t able to do this  They now don’t have to repay loans  There is lack of oversight on how the public finances are being managed Water and Finance International Aid and Improving Water Access to Water Resources  Large scale water projects receive a lot of financial aid  Aid should emphasize small-scale projects to be effective  The aid the countries are receiving from the international community’s doesn’t have to be money it can be transferred knowledge Landlocked Developing Countries  They have no direct access to the ocean  This is one cause of poverty  This is one of the major limits on the economic developments of Bolivia  These countries that are landlocked have less opportunity for trade  Bolivia has one of the highest amount of water resources because of its mountainous location  Because of the lack of development they aren’t able to use these resources  They are still relying on primitive water infrastructure  Economies too weak to develop extensive networks for sanitation and freshwater supply Developing Countries and Vulnerability  Higher exposure to strain on weak economies  More endemic diseases  More exposure to extreme climate events Water and Finance Structural Adjustments  Policies implemented by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank: in developing countries  Require from these countries policy changes in how nations are administered o The governments are spending way too much o They are intervening way too often in the markets o They are poorly governed  They are conditions for getting new loans from the IMF or World Bank, or for obtaining lower interest rates on existing loans o Improved governance so the country is better managed Impacts of the Structural Adjustments  Have been largely: detrimental on countries where they were implemented  The net result is increase in corruption, poor management of the aid that has been received, poor governance, closed markets  None of this has helped the situation Economic Growth & Food Productivity  In 1980: 2012 kg/ha in Asia  In 1980: 927 kg/ha in Africa  There is direct correlation between how much food they have and economic status  Therefore this can explain why Asian economies have grown tremendously while African countries have remained in the same position  Africa: where are located most countries with average annual income is below $3000  In Asia only a few countries are on the list of countries with less than $3000 in income  They also have better use of agricultural techniques Water and Finance The Road to Higher Food Productivity  Increased reliance on tools from the Green Revolution  A lot of irrigation and fertilizers being used  1980: 37% of cropland in Asia under irrigation  1980: 4% of cropland in Africa under irrigation Water Crisis and Governance  Inadequate governance: a major contributor  Fragmented responsibilities o Different agencies and government take on wate
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