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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Dams & Increasing Supplies.pdf

16 Pages

Earth Sciences
Course Code
Luc Bernier

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DamsIncreasing Supplies1 Which province is currently facing opposition against a proposal for a dam and hydroelectric generating station built on its Peace River a Alberta b Quebec c New Brunswick d British Columbia DamsUnintended ImpactsOrange are negative green are positiveWater in the reservoir can evaporate more easilyThere is a net loss because water taken for irrigation is not usually returned to the riverWorld Commissions on Dams estimate that about 60 of effects of dams are unintended by planners Part 1Dams A Few Fundamentals Dams Tools of Water EngineeringDams such as the Condit Dam in Washington State 1910 have great historical significanceThey have allowed irrigated agriculture by storing water in periods of god supply therefore converting flood hazard into a usable resource by accumulating river flows until further neededThey have also contributed to urban developmentIn the modern world they are essential developments largescale water diversions DamsIncreasing SuppliesStructure of a DamThe upstream face is facing the reservoir where the water is being storedThe downstream face is pointing towards the direction the water would normally follow as it is flowing down the riverThe maximum upward limit is the crest of the damIf water would flow above the crest this would lead to conditions of inundationTo regulate the flow of water adjustments can be made through the principle spillway however under conditions where the volume of water in the reservoir would be exceptional it could lead to inundation and water will follow the left and right abutment and flow down the emergency spillway and flow in the normal direction of the riverPrincipal Storage Zones in ReservoirUnder normal river discharge conditions the volume of water stored in the reservoir will be found in the active storage with the minimum level of water corresponding to the minimum pool levelUnder higher discharge conditions the excess water that is found in the reservoir will correspond to the flood poolUnder these conditions the volume of water in the reservoir can be controlled through the principle outletUnder exceptional flood conditions high river discharge the maximum level of water that can be stored in the reservoir will correspond to the maximum water surface and approximately to the freeboard of the crest of the damTo prevent any additional water to create inundation downstream by spilling over the top of the dam the volume of water can be controlled through the emergency spill wayRivers with high sediments loads have high dead storage That is sediments carried by the river settle out of suspension once they encounter the wall of the dam and fall at the bottom of the reservoir therefore reducing the active storage and the volume of water that can be stored in a reservoirDead storage is filled by sediments
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