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ECON 2K03 (28)

Econ 2k03 4.docx

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Hannah Holmes

New France Jacques Cartier -north west passage seeker to indies - claimed land for French in quebec in 1534 by planting a cross - 1535 sailed the st lawerance river and visited two aboriginal settlements: Stadacona (Quebec City) and Hochelaga (Montreal) - 1550 fishers made contact with natives and took back furs to france - in 1580’s fishers left fishing for the fur trade - in 1608 Samuel Champlain erected a habitation(put up a building) in Quebec City - Champlain wanted to find passage to indies as well - at the settlement in quebec city met economic demands: go out find the furs… become close with native suppliers and try to get the right of exploitation. Fur Trade - beaver for hats - the French needed the natives to provide these materials - fashion changed in Europe: wider rims on hat increased beaver material - originally Europe got beaver from Russia but due to over hunting the beaver was non-existent which made Canada a success - for the next 250 years of expansion in Canada was because of the pursuit of fur - fur trade couldn’t have existed without the natives - the French formed an alliance with the huron which is the enemy of the Iroquois - New France largely empty so when Champlain came the huron were most powerful in the region - In 1613 the dutch established new Amsterdam (new york city) - Then they Established trading post in Albany - The dutch and Iroquois got together just like the French and huron Characteristics: - Demand and supply of fur were unpredictable and highly volatile - Inelastic price demand and supply - European merchants wanted some control: bargain for exclusive rights with natives, they would then control the supply of furs shipped to Europe - They also thought about restricting access of things to trade to natives for furs, or some merchants would approach the governement - Expanded over a large area o Once you depleted one forest had to move on o Farther west the greater the cost.. total cost didn’t increase that much though because furs were high value low bulk - High value, low bulk o Small quantity of furs was worth high value Burch Bart canoe: big development during fur trade • Settlement left to private companies • Companies got subsidies from gov • Private interests and Crown interests not always the same • King gave fur people monopolies to get fur in certain regions • If you wanted the right to establish had to establish settlement and missionary work • A lot of times the companies who were supposed to settle would go trapping instead of building homes • No economic reason for colony to grow • Reason being that the fur trade didn’t need a large French population • Clearing the land was hard work • French clash with Iroquois: wasn’t very safe • Crops grown in new france weren’t exportable 1649-1670 in New France - change began - entry of new player in fur trade: 500 Coureurs de bois (independent of chartered fur trade companies catching fur) - the gov. came down hard on these independents for immorale practices of catching beaver - harder now to regulate supply - nothing stopped the coureurs… headed west to beat the native middlemen - fewer natives brought back furs after the introduction of the coureurs - colonial merchants went on to hire the coureurs to stay on in business - 1649 Iroquois attacked the Huron and ended their dominance of the fur trade - Iroquois didn’t take a dominate role after knocking of the Huron - French then took the role themselves and began catching - 1663 France no longer monopoly on fur but made new france a royal colony and in charge of the colony was the minister of marine named Colbert - in short run France supported immigration to the colony and population grew by 4400 to 7000 - immigrants were subsidized to come to new france…. High subsidization for women and those with certain skills (carpenter) - Colbert had two principle policies o 1. Religious presence had to be kept under control o 2. Integrate new france into french empire -
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